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Summer 2017   

    IN THIS ISSUE:


Communities Support Seniors With Aging-Friendly Policies

Highlights

      • Now legal under Philadelphia’s revised zoning code, accessory dwelling units meet seniors’ changing housing needs and enable them to remain in their communities while also providing additional income.
      • Through no-step entries and other features that ensure safe mobility, visitable housing in Philadelphia alleviates social and physical isolation among seniors and can also improve quality of life for people of all ages as well as improve access for children in strollers, bicyclists, and those with disabilities.
      • With the long-term goals of connecting area seniors to community amenities, improving walkability, and fostering mixed-use development, the Mableton Town Center and Master Plan are the result of several community engagement activities conducted by the Atlanta Regional Commission’s Lifelong Communities Initiative.


Faced with a growing number of seniors, communities across the nation are taking steps to accommodate the needs of an aging population. Many older adults prefer to remain in their homes and neighborhoods as they age, and communities that support aging-friendly housing, transportation, and social engagement efforts help seniors remain independent without sacrificing their quality of life. These efforts can include increasing affordable housing located near public transportation, promoting home modification programs, and improving pedestrian paths and bus shelters.1

This article focuses on two communities that have adopted policies that support seniors’ ability to age in place. The city of Philadelphia has revised its zoning code to legalize accessory dwelling units (ADUs) and implemented modest regulations for visitable entryways to allow seniors to remain in their communities. The city has also invested in pedestrian-friendly streets and free public transportation services to accommodate seniors who no longer drive. Mableton, Georgia, is a suburban community west of Atlanta that has taken steps to promote a healthy living environment through improved walkability and public transportation to allow seniors better access to community assets. Philadelphia and Atlanta are both part of the AARP Network of Age-Friendly Communities under the World Health Organization’s Global Network for Age-Friendly Cities and Communities program, which encourages member communities to improve the built environment to support both the physical and social well-being of seniors.2


Photo shows an elderly man being helped off a van and an elderly woman with a walker in the foreground.

The Attendant Transportation Service mitigates isolation among seniors by providing transportation to medical clinics, senior centers, and shopping. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging – Linda L. Riley

Age-Friendly Philadelphia

Adults age 65 and over made up about 12 percent of Philadelphia’s population in 2010.3 A large number of these seniors — 206,000 — also own some of Philadelphia’s oldest housing stock, which dates back 50 years and lacks many of the modifications that older residents with limited mobility require.4 Many of the city’s older adults prefer to age in place. The Public Health Management Corporation conducted its Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey in 2010, which found that 66 percent of Philadelphia seniors wanted to remain in their homes for 10 years or longer.5 Based on these findings, Philadelphia is taking steps to accommodate the preferences of its oldest residents.

Age-Friendly Philadelphia, which began in 2009, is an initiative of the Philadelphia Corporation for Aging’s (PCA’s) Planning Department.6 A nonprofit Area Agency on Aging, PCA collaborates with several public, private, and nonprofit agencies to carry out its mission of creating a city where residents of all ages can easily access community assets.7 To guide its efforts, PCA examined the framework of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Aging Initiative to create its own model for Age-Friendly Philadelphia, which it called Supportive Age-friendly Environments (SAFE). Two Aging Initiative concepts influenced Age-Friendly Philadelphia’s work: “active aging,” a term that places seniors in control of their individual health, and “smart growth,” a planning strategy to ensure that communities and people are connected socially and physically through a supportive built environment. Age-Friendly Philadelphia’s SAFE also reflects four focus areas from EPA’s Aging Initiative: staying active, connected, and engaged; development and housing; transportation and mobility; and staying healthy.8

Remaining Home

PCA has also worked to modernize the Philadelphia Zoning Code. The most recent zoning code, adopted in August 2012, now uses the words “aging,” “elders,” and “senior citizens.”9 Since 2009, PCA has collaborated with the Zoning Code Commission as well as the Philadelphia Association of Community Development Corporations to support ADUs as an affordable housing option that provides seniors with additional income and also the ability to remain in their current neighborhood close to family members or other caretakers.10 Also referred to as “granny flats” or “mother-in-law suites,” ADUs are another housing option that meets the changing needs of older adults while preserving the character of existing neighborhoods.11 Many Philadelphians had already created ADUs via a separate entry before the new zoning code came into effect. Because ADUs already existed in Philadelphia, the Zoning Code Commission recognized the need to legalize and regulate them.12 The 2012 zoning code permits one ADU of 800 square feet or less in a single-family home or duplex, either within the home or in a detached structure such as a garage.13

Photo shows the first floor facade of a multistory building with doors with zero-step entries.
Seniors striving to age in place can benefit from the features of visitable housing, such as a zero-step entrance that accommodates people using walkers or wheelchairs. Philadelphia Visitability Committee

Increasing Mobility

Because many Philadelphia rowhomes are inaccessible to seniors with low mobility, the city is taking several actions to help seniors remain in their homes.14 The city’s new zoning code outlines the requirements to make a house “visitable,” or able to be visited by people of all ages regardless of physical ability. To be visitable, a house must have a step-free entrance, a half-bath and bedroom on the first floor, and doors and hallways wide enough to accommodate a wheelchair or walker.15 These requirements allow older adults to continue their daily routine without the hazards that stairs present. A visitable home also helps prevent mobility limitations from isolating the elderly from their family and friends.16 The features of visitable housing are useful to people of all ages, including those with disabilities, children in strollers, people using bicycles or scooters, and those recovering from surgery or a broken limb.17

To raise awareness of the benefits and design options for visitable housing, the Community Design Collaborative, Philadelphia’s Office of Housing and Community Development (now called the Division of Housing and Community Development), and the Philadelphia Visitability Committee partnered to host a design charrette, Visitability for Urban Neighborhoods, in October 2010. The charrette invited designers and architects to learn about the most feasible designs for visitable homes that can also fit within Philadelphia’s rowhouse-style neighborhoods.18 The charrette encouraged designers and architects to build visitable homes even when they are not mandated by an ordinance.19 The participants determined that visitability should also create connectivity and relationships, so the charrette teams looked for ways to include communal spaces beyond the home, such as gardens, sidewalks, and outdoor benches. Participants also decided that visitable housing, using designs that vary depending on household needs, is a valid way for communities to adapt to demographic shifts.20

Like visitable housing, access to public transportation is another way to mitigate social isolation among seniors. The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority offers a free-ride program for more than 200,000 seniors.21 PCA also sponsors the Attendant Transportation Service (ATS), which provides door-to-door service to doctor’s visits, senior facilities, and grocery stores for disabled seniors enrolled in the Shared Ride Program.22 The high demand for ATS, however, has resulted in long waits and the need to call well in advance to reserve a ride, noted Dr. Allen Glicksman, director of research and evaluation at PCA.23

According to Glicksman, many seniors move to the city to walk to shops, public amenities, and services, and these seniors require accommodations to make walking safe for them. Mayor Michael Nutter signed an executive order in June 2010 to establish the city’s Complete Streets initiative, which described how the 2,600 miles of streets in Philadelphia should be designed to accommodate uses beyond vehicular traffic. The Complete Streets initiative supported a safer and more walkable city and advocated adding more covered outdoor seating at bus shelters to promote the use of public transportation. Under Complete Streets, the city constructed 200 miles of bike lanes and created well-marked intersections and pedestrian crossings.24 As Glicksman noted, Complete Streets encourages walkability, but the prevalence of broken sidewalks and the lack of seating and shelter at bus stops isolates older adults without cars. An encounter with trash in the street can be a minor annoyance to a nondisabled young person but a true barrier to walkability to a frail, older adult, Glicksman explained.25


Photo shows produce in baskets with buyers and sellers at a farmers market.

Community events such as the Mableton Farmers Market help seniors to connect with others and avoid social isolation. Atlanta Regional Commission

Challenges for ADUs and Visitability

During public meetings to update Philadelphia’s Zoning Code, pushback on ADUs arose from citizens concerned about local universities purchasing housing and vacant lots to construct student apartments that could alter the character of their neighborhoods. Institutions of higher education such as the University of Pennsylvania, Temple University, Drexel University, and Thomas Jefferson University make up a large share of the local economy and are powerful stakeholders in Philadelphia’s housing development. For PCA, the revised 2012 Philadelphia Zoning Code represents a partial victory because it acknowledges the needs of older adults; however, more modifications will be needed to ensure that neighborhood character is preserved, Glicksman said.26

Susan Klein, former director of housing at PCA, stated that another major challenge for visitability advocates is creating a demand for visitable housing. For example, a developer indicated that when homeowners are presented with the option to have granite kitchen countertops or a half-bathroom on the first floor, the homeowners typically choose the countertops. Klein also suggested that public officials have trouble understanding the need for visitable housing until they have experienced the need themselves. Furthermore, Philadelphia’s traditional rowhouse style, with three steps leading up to the front door, is considered by city residents to be the archetypal look of local housing. Overcoming this mindset is key to moving forward, Klein said. Yet some residents prefer the traditional housing style for both aesthetic and security reasons; in addition, the style elevates the home above street noise and car lights. Visitable housing is the norm for any low-income housing funded by the Philadelphia Division of Housing and Community Development; the challenge is making market-rate housing visitable.27 The Philadelphia Zoning Code currently requires only that new market-rate developments with 50 or more detached, semidetached or attached houses must make 10 percent of the units visitable.28

Enacting Change

Although PCA’s goal is to assist seniors, it also strives to appeal to a nonsenior audience through its tenet that what is good for seniors is good for people of all ages. One of PCA’s programs, called Generation Appreciation Philadelphia (GenPhilly), is a network of young professionals that strives to raise awareness of seniors’ needs. Members learn across various fields of expertise and dispel stereotypes about seniors while also becoming aging experts in their respective organizations. GenPhilly also encourages members to discuss the qualities in a neighborhood that they would value as they age. Equally important is encouraging public officials to recognize that seniors often provide necessary family childcare. This awareness can motivate a commitment to home modifications so that seniors can remain in their homes and continue to supervise their grandchildren.29

Photo shows four adults standing around a table with a large map on it with another larger group of adults watching a presentation on a screen in the background.
Public engagement was a major success of the Lifelong Communities Charrette to create the South Cobb Town Center-Mableton Lifelong Community Plan, which increased connectivity and walkability to Mableton’s assets. Atlanta Regional Commission

PCA also understands that many seniors do not trust public health officials and many other professionals as reliable sources of information about health and lifestyle. Some seniors may be reluctant to trust someone several years younger for health advice. One gardening study led by PCA demonstrated that engaging in informal activities can bridge this trust gap. In the study, seniors directed the gardening project and mentored youth who did the bulk of the lifting. Social workers also participated, and seniors were able to collaborate with them to complete the work. Glicksman emphasized that this activity facilitated unexpected trust.30

Throughout the public engagement process to revise the Philadelphia Zoning Code, frail, older adults rarely attended public meetings. Instead, it was highly mobile, healthy, and educated individuals who attended. Ironically, “sometimes the older adult is the missing piece in age friendly,” Glicksman explained. More efforts need to focus on directly engaging with frail, older adults when enacting age-friendly initiatives to ensure that their voices are heard.31

Lifelong Communities: Mableton, Georgia

In the Atlanta metropolitan region, 1 in 5 residents will be over age 60 by 2030.32 The Lifelong Communities Initiative, led by the Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC), an Area Agency on Aging, is a “comprehensive effort” that arose in 2007 out of the need to reevaluate how communities accommodate seniors and people with disabilities.33 ARC, a regional planning and intergovernmental coordination agency, provides leadership, research, and statistical analysis on transportation, affordable housing, zoning, aging, and other topics for 10 counties in the Atlanta metropolitan area.34 According to Mary Tonore Blumberg, manager of strategic planning and development at ARC’s Aging and Independence Services, Lifelong Communities emerged at a time when few people were thinking about the region’s changing demographics, and the initiative has increased communities’ readiness to accommodate an aging population. Blumberg emphasized that “as people age they are likely to outlive their ability to drive, and the Atlanta region is still very car dependent.”35

Lifelong Communities originated in 2002 from the Aging Atlanta Partnership, which the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded through its Community Partnerships for Older Adults grant program.36 ARC adheres to seven principles for Lifelong Communities: connectivity through several modes of transportation, safe walkability to community amenities, walkable access to shopping and services to reduce car dependence, communal spaces to spur social interaction, a variety of housing types to accommodate changing needs and preferences, healthy living environments that support the availability of fresh produce and outdoor walking trails, and respect for current residents to remain in place throughout the construction process.37 ARC chose the community of Mableton for its pilot program (Lifelong Mableton) based on its readiness to make age-friendly changes.38

Mableton is a suburban community located in southern Cobb County, 15 miles west of Atlanta’s downtown.39 According to 2011–15 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, 8.2 percent of Mableton residents were over age 65.40 Although Mableton originated as a small railroad town, increasing development in the greater Atlanta area led to urban sprawl in the community in the form of shopping plazas and residential subdivisions separated from services.41 The area has several community assets, such as the Silver Comet Trail, Mable House Cultural Arts Center and Amphitheatre, WellStar Cobb Hospital, a public library, a post office, and Mableton Elementary School.42 Although the rail line that runs through Mableton is designed only for freight and nonstop Amtrak service, the area is well suited to accommodate a regional passenger line in the future.43

Community Engagement

In February 2009, ARC cohosted a 9-day Lifelong Communities Charrette with Duany Plater-Zyberk and Company (now known as DPZ Partners), which brought together more than 1,500 local residents, developers, local government officials, social workers, planners, designers, and architects to discuss design options and foster community consensus for developments that support walkability and healthy living.44 The charrette’s goal was to determine the types of interventions needed to implement ARC’s seven principles for Lifelong Communities.45 Lessons from this charrette included the need to incorporate New Urbanist designs, improve accessibility with supportive building codes, and modify existing building forms to accommodate an aging population.46 The participants created master plans for five sites across the Atlanta region, including the South Cobb Town Center-Mableton Lifelong Community Plan (Mableton Master Plan).47

The Mableton Master Plan, which the Cobb County Board of Commissioners approved in February 2011, aims to reverse the effects of urban sprawl over 21 acres.48 The Master Plan calls for locating housing within walking distance of amenities near the intersection of Floyd and Clay roads. The plan is attuned to the transportation needs of children and seniors who no longer drive and therefore accounts for services and recreation facilities within walking distance of housing.49

As a followup to the Lifelong Communities Charrette, residents and other stakeholders participated in the South Cobb form-based code (also referred to as the SmartCode) charrette held at Mableton Elementary School in June 2010. Residents identified many challenges during the charrette, including the lack of a central gathering space with walkable access to dining and entertainment options.50 One remedy discussed in the Master Plan is the construction of a Mableton Town Square that offers a large green space and added connectivity. Mableton’s built environment requires a car, straining those unable or unwilling to drive. Residents indicated that determining neighborhood boundaries was difficult because of the community’s continuous strip-mall landscape.51 One future design strategy is to encourage mixed-use development and adaptive reuse of intact buildings in strip malls for supportive housing or a satellite college campus.52

Cheryl Mayerik, former Lifelong Mableton coordinator at ARC, indicated that many residents who participated in the South Cobb form-based code charrette feared density. The focus group discussions with other stakeholders, however, altered their perceptions and made residents more comfortable with the form-based code, which the Cobb County Board of Commissioners approved on February 22, 2011.53 The form-based code encourages walkability, mixed-use development, local character, transit, housing diversity, a vibrant downtown, and open land rather than sprawl and vehicular dependence.54

Front façade of a two-story school building.
Mableton Elementary School is the focal point of the Mableton Town Square, a pedestrian-friendly green space. FEMA Photo by Sharon Karr

ARC also employed another community engagement tool, a walkability assessment, to evaluate barriers and opportunities for walking in Mableton. Residents used photovoice methods to photograph and document sidewalk, bus stop, bike path, and other pedestrian conditions.55 Participants identified the Silver Comet Trail — a 61.5-mile bike- and wheelchair-accessible path — as one of Mableton’s strongest assets, citing open sightlines, shade-providing tree canopies, and picnic and restroom facilities as positive attributes.56 Mableton will further capitalize on this community asset by connecting the trail to the Mableton Town Square.57 Another effort to encourage walking and a healthy lifestyle is the Safe Routes to Schools Initiative, which has proposed a grandparents club to chaperone children walking to and from school.58

Current Progress

Mableton Town Square, an expansive green space that is approximately the length of a football field, opened in April 2016. The Town Square links pedestrians to the adjacent Mableton Elementary School via 10-foot-wide sidewalks and on-street parking.59 Just east of Mableton Town Square is the farmers market, held 19 weeks a year in the parking lot of the Mable House Cultural Arts Center and Amphitheatre.60 The local Mableton Improvement Coalition (MIC) approved both the farmers market and community garden, which not only offered residents healthy food options but also became very popular social gathering spots for the community. Such amenities help seniors avoid isolation, Blumberg and Mayerik said. Those who join the community garden automatically receive membership in MIC, which further empowers residents to participate in the city’s development process.61 Local community partners such as AARP and WellStar Health System provide shuttle service to the farmers market and on-site health screenings for attendees.

Identifying and Mitigating Barriers in Mableton

Seniors in the Atlanta metropolitan region face a shortage of affordable housing options located near services, and 57 percent of renters age 65 and older are cost burdened, spending 30 percent or more of their income on housing costs.62 Although significant housing development has taken place in Mableton in recent years, most of the city’s housing stock was built before 1990.63 As older adults enter their retirement years, they will require housing modifications such as wide doorways and entryways without steps. For some seniors, relocating to a smaller house near retail and health clinics is necessary to live independently.64 Furthermore, Mableton is a census-designated place — an unincorporated community — that is serviced by Cobb County rather than having its own governing structure with elected officials representing residents’ interests. As a result, acquiring funding and government support for development projects remains an ongoing challenge.65

As Blumberg explained, “A large part of the problem is that people are not aware that [an aging population] is an issue and that as you age your needs change.” Mitigating these barriers to success requires collective action rather than individual, isolated actions.66 Resident involvement in MIC and other neighborhood associations working to promote residents’ quality of life is a step toward such collective action.67 Another challenge has been identifying effective tools to engage Mableton residents; the walkability assessment was one such tool, and trainings and public workshops that build the capacity of the local community are others.68 Community collaboration is one of Lifelong Mableton’s greatest accomplishments.69 ARC is continuing its community education efforts and applying the lessons learned in Mableton to other communities in the Atlanta metropolitan region.70

Looking Ahead

PCA and Lifelong Mableton’s efforts focus on ensuring aging adults can safely remain home, while also facilitating access to social connections. In the future, PCA plans to develop a best practices manual to examine how community organizations can support the needs of seniors. PCA also plans to reexamine what it means to be age friendly, and will focus on identifying avenues to directly involve older adults in the age-friendly planning process. Through its work to create a vibrant community for seniors and people of all ages, the ARC recognizes that accommodating aging adults is a permanent shift rather than a temporary one — and this challenge will extend to future generations as Americans live longer.71




  1. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. 2016. “Projections & Implications for Housing A Growing Population: Older Households 2015-2035.”
  2. Patricia Oh. 2015. “The Age-Friendly Community Movement in Maine,” Maine Policy Review 24:2, 56–9; Michael Nutter. 2013. “City of Elderly Love: Philadelphia, an Age-Friendly and Accessible City.”
  3. U.S. Census Bureau. “Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010” (www.factfinder.census.gov). Accessed 20 April 2017.
  4. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging. “Housing Resources” (www.pcacares.org/services-for-seniors/housing-resources/). Accessed 26 April 2017.
  5. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging. 2011a. “Laying the Foundation for an Age-friendly Philadelphia: A Progress Report,” 31.
  6. Ibid., 63; Kate Clark and Allen Glicksman. 2012. “Age-friendly Philadelphia: Bringing  Diverse Networks Together around Aging Issues,” Journal of Housing for the Elderly 26:1-3, 121–36.
  7. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging. 2010. “A Summary of Age-friendly Philadelphia”; Interview with Allen Glicksman, 28 June 2017.
  8. Clark and Glicksman; Interview with Allen Glicksman; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. “Growing Smarter, Living Healthier: A Guide to Smart Growth and Active Aging.”
  9. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging 2011a, 30; Philadelphia City Planning Commission. 2014. “Lower North District Plan Executive Summary,” 4; Philadelphia Corporation for Aging. 2011b. “Proposed Zoning Code & Older  Philadelphians: An Age-friendly Philadelphia Report, June 2011.”
  10. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging 2011a, 31; City of Philadelphia. “Codes” (www.phila.gov/li/codesand-regulations/Pages/codes.aspx). Accessed 3 July 2017
  11. City of Philadelphia; Interview with Allen Glicksman.
  12. Interview with Allen Glicksman.
  13. City of Philadelphia.
  14. Brian James Kirk. 2011. “Making rowhomes more age-friendly,” PlanPhilly.
  15. City of Philadelphia; Philadelphia Corporation for Aging 2011a, 32; Laura Keyes, Carolyn Rader, and Cathie Berger. 2011. “Creating Communities: Atlanta’s Lifelong Community Initiative,”  Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics 29:1, 59–74; Community Design Collaborative. 2011. “Visitability for Urban Neighborhoods: Design Charrette,” May 9 presentation at Aging in a New Age Summit, 5; Kellie Patrick Gates. 2010. “Should Philadelphia homes have first floors that are accessible to all?PlanPhilly.
  16. Community Design Collaborative, 5.
  17. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging 2011a, 32; Interview with Susan Klein, 30 June 2017.
  18. Community Design Collaborative, 6; PlanPhilly. 2010. “Designed for Visitability: Ways to create a truly inclusive city, one new house at a time”; Kirk.
  19. Kirk; PlanPhilly.
  20. Community Design Collaborative, 8, 10.
  21. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging. “Transportation” (www.pcacares.org/services-for-seniors/transportation/). Accessed 19 June 2017; Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. “Seniors Ride Transit Free on SEPTA” (www.septa.org/fares/discount/seniors-ride-free-info.html). Accessed 20 June 2017; Philadelphia Corporation for Aging 2011a, 25.
  22. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging. 2006. “Attendant Transportation Service Fact Sheet.”
  23. Interview with Allen Glicksman.
  24. Philadelphia Corporation for Aging 2011a, 35; Nutter; Interview with Allen Glicksman.
  25. Interview with Allen Glicksman.
  26. Ibid.; Email correspondence from Allen Glicksman, 5 July 2017.
  27. Interview with Susan Klein; Kirk; PlanPhilly.
  28. Kirk; City of Philadelphia.
  29. Clark and Glicksman; Interview with Allen Glicksman; Kate Clark. 2014. “GenPhilly: A Strategy for Improving the Sustainability of Aging in Community Initiatives,” Journal of Aging & Social Policy 26:1-2, 197–211.
  30. Interview with Allen Glicksman.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Atlanta Regional  Commission. 2009. Lifelong Communities: A Regional Guide to Growth and Longevity. Document provided by Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  33. Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik, 23 June 2017; Keyes et al.
  34. Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik; Atlanta Regional Commission. “About the Atlanta Regional Commission” (atlantaregional.org/about-arc/). Accessed 27 June 2017.
  35. Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  36. Keyes et al.; Atlanta Regional Commission 2009.
  37. Atlanta Regional Commission. “Meeting the Future Needs of Our Changing Region” (atlantaregional.org/aging-health-planning/). Accessed 19 June 2017; Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik; Keyes et al.
  38. Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  39. Keyes et al.
  40. U.S. Census Bureau. “2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates” (www.factfinder.census.gov). Accessed 30 June 2017.
  41. Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company. 2010a. “Mableton” (www.dpz.com/Projects/1003). Accessed 19 June 2017.
  42. Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company. 2010b. “South Cobb Town Center: Mableton Lifelong Community,” 23; Keyes et al.; Atlanta Regional Commission 2009.
  43. Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company 2010b, 19; Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company 2010a.
  44. Keyes et al.; Linda Weiss. 2013. “Community Innovation for Aging in Place: Grantee Case Study, Lifelong Mableton: A Pilot of Building Lifelong Communities in South Cobb County,” 5; Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company 2010b, 7; Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  45. Atlanta Regional Commission 2009; Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  46. Keyes et al.; Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company 2010b, 7.
  47. Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  48. Cobb County Board of Commissioners. 2011. “§ 134-286. Mableton form-based redevelopment, Article V”; Atlanta Regional Commission 2009.
  49. Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company 2010b, 19; Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company 2010a.
  50. Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company 2010b, 10; Cobb County Board of Commissioners 2011.
  51. Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company 2010b, 10, 24; Cobb County Government. 2015. “Mableton Town Square Walker Drive Extension ”; Cobb County Government. 2016. “New Mableton greenspace to open.”
  52. Atlanta Regional Commission 2009.
  53. Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik; Atlanta Regional Commission. 2011. “Mableton Adopts Form Based Code,” Land Matters.
  54. Duaney Plater-Zyberk & Company 2010b, 79.
  55. Atlanta Regional Commission and Lifelong Mableton Initiative. 2010. “Walking Mableton Through Local Eyes,” Mableton Photovoice Project; Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  56. “Silver Comet Trail – Home,” Silver Comet Trail GA website (www.silvercometga.com/silver-comet-cobb-county/silver-comet-floyd.shtml). Accessed 29 June 2017; Atlanta Regional Commission and Lifelong Mableton Initiative 2010.
  57. Atlanta Regional Commission 2009.
  58. Weiss, 10–2.
  59. Cobb County Government. 2015. “Mableton Town Square Walker Drive Extension”; Cobb County Government. 2016. “New Mableton greenspace to open.”
  60. Weiss, 10.
  61. Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  62. Mary Blumberg. 2017. “ARC Policy Briefing: Metro Atlanta’s Senior Housing Shortage,” Document provided by Mary Blumberg.
  63. U.S. Census Bureau. “2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates” (www.factfinder.census.gov). Accessed 16 June 2017.
  64. Mary Blumberg, 2017.
  65. Weiss, 5.
  66. Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  67. Cobb County Community Development Agency Department of Transportation. 2015. “Historic Mableton Preservation and Improvement Plan: Five Year Livable Centers  Initiative Update: 2014-2019”; Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  68. Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  69. Weiss, 7.
  70. Joint interview with Mary Blumberg and Cheryl Mayerik.
  71. Ibid.

 

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