Skip to main content

Cityscape: Volume 25 Number 1 | Housing Technology Projects | Exploring the Potential of Factory Installed Solar + Storage for Homebuilding


The goal of Cityscape is to bring high-quality original research on housing and community development issues to scholars, government officials, and practitioners. Cityscape is open to all relevant disciplines, including architecture, consumer research, demography, economics, engineering, ethnography, finance, geography, law, planning, political science, public policy, regional science, sociology, statistics, and urban studies.

Cityscape is published three times a year by the Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Housing Technology Projects

Volume 25 Number 1

Mark D. Shroder

Michelle P. Matuga

Exploring the Potential of Factory Installed Solar + Storage for Homebuilding

Isabelina Nahmens
Ondřej Labík
Louisiana State University

Alison Donovan
Kalee Whitehouse
Damon Lane
Desmond Kirwan
Leslie Badger

Ankur Podder
Shanti Pless
National Renewable Energy Laboratory

In recent years, an increasing number of grid disruptions due to intense weather events, natural disasters, and high peak loads resulted in increased interest in energy-resilient homes. Solar + storage (S+S) as an energy resiliency solution can provide continuity, onsite generation, and backup power during critical events. This project explored factory-installed solar plus storage (FISS) to overcome first cost and installation barriers and bring this resiliency solution to scale for single-family affordable and market-rate homebuyers. Guided by the principles of Lean manufacturing, the team explored how factories building high-performance zero energy modular homes can incorporate S+S into their existing construction system while improving quality and productivity and reducing the costs of the resilient energy system.

Previous Article    |    Next Article