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Cityscape: Volume 1 Number 3


Commemorating HUD’s 30th Anniversary

Volume 1, Number 3

Ann R. Weeks


Commemorating HUD's 30th Anniversary

Advisory Board

Editor: Michael A. Stegman

Managing Editor: Ann R. Weeks

Elijah Anderson
University of Pennsylvania

Roy Bahl
Georgia State University

Ann Bowman
University of South Carolina

Henry Coleman
Rutgers University

Greg Duncan
University of Michigan

Amy Glasmeier
Pennsylvania State University

Norman J. Glickman
Rutgers University

Harvey Goldstein
University of North Carolina

Jane Gravelle
Congressional Research Service

Bennett Harrison
Harvard University

Steven P. Hornburg
Fannie Mae Foundation

Helen F. Ladd
Duke University

Wilhelmina A. Leigh
Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies

Laurence E. Lynn, Jr.
University of Chicago

Sandra Newman
Johns Hopkins University

John Tuccillo
National Association of Realtors

Avis Vidal
New School of Social Research

Don Villarejo
California Institute for Rural Studies

Susan Woodward
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research strives to share HUD-funded and other research on housing and urban policy issues with scholars, government officials, and others involved in setting policy and determining the direction of future research.

Cityscape focuses on innovative ideas, policies, and programs that show promise in revitalizing cities and regions, renewing their infrastructure, and creating economic opportunities. A typical issue consists of articles that examine various aspects of a theme of particular interest to our audience.

From the Editor

Michael A. Stegman, Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research

This issue of Cityscape celebrates the 30th anniversary of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Cityscape is a new journal intended to refresh, inform, and challenge the thinking of scholars and policymakers on issues of housing and community development. To commemorate HUD's anniversary, this issue combines elements of Cityscape's usual scholarly forum with several distinctive features, including a rare look behind the scenes at a major Cabinet agency, HUD.

In keeping with previous Cityscape issues, we present articles by four distinguished scholars and researchers. They were asked to give their views—negative as well as positive—on the history and achievements of the Department—in other words, to call it as they saw it. I am happy to say they have succeeded admirably in providing four thoughtful and provocative assessments of HUD’s contributions over its 30 years.

Neil Mayer brings the perspective of both a city official and a policy analyst to his assessment of HUD’s success in fulfilling its key role of providing low-income housing assistance and facilitating community development. Although the Department has some solid accomplishments to its credit, Mayer argues that its role has shifted often over the 30-year period and that it still faces formidable challenges.

President Jimmy Carter sought to overcome the legacy of laissez-faire Federalism characterized by benign neglect of urban areas and to satisfy his principal electoral base by developing the Nation’s first national urban policy. Yvonne Scruggs, executive director of that effort, writes about the ways in which President Carter achieved his objectives, however fleetingly, and examines subsequent administrations from the perspective of a pro-city advocate.

The long debate about whether to subsidize the tenant or the project has been settled, Louis Winnick writes, and the tenant wins. Although some producer programs will—and should—linger on, a clear victory has been scored for adding to the purchasing power of the renter rather than increasing rent-producing subsidies for the producer. But, in Winnick’s view, the systematic research on which we pride ourselves had little to do with Congress’ decision to implement the tenant-based approach.

Anthony Downs suggests that a window of opportunity for realigning major functions of existing Federal departments was opened by the November 1994 elections. HUD should continue to carry out those social functions that it alone can perform through simplified, consolidated programs; should shift its emphasis from the supply side to the demand side in housing aid; and should promote spatial efficiency in cities with help from strong incentives for regional decisionmaking. He suggests a merger of HUD and the Department of Transportation.

Unique to this commemorative volume are three special features. First, Secretary Cisneros invited all former Secretaries of Housing and Urban Development to reflect upon their years in office. Their views—in their words—are presented in an article by Joseph Foote that includes one of the last interviews given by the late Secretary George Romney.

Second, through notices in a variety of professional and advocacy journals, we invited comments from the general public on any aspect of their personal involvement with the Department. Six of these thoughtful personal reflections, edited only for style, are scattered throughout the volume.

In a closing essay, Secretary Cisneros offers thoughts about his 2 1/2 years in office and the legacy the HUD team will leave from these dynamic and exciting years. Regardless of what the 104th Congress does legislatively, so many changes have been made at HUD that the Department will never be the same again.

The editors are grateful to all who have contributed to this issue of Cityscape. We hope it will be of value to future students of 20th-century housing and urban development. We hope too that it pays appropriate tribute to the thousands of people who have served in the Department and the millions of citizens who have benefited from its labors. Finally, it is my hope that Cityscape itself can become part of the legacy of this administration at HUD and that my successors will consider it worthy of continuation over the Department’s next 30 years.

63 Years of Federal Action in Housing and Urban Development

HUD's First 30 Years: Big Steps Down a Longer Road
by Neil S. Mayer

A Personal Reflection: Our Stomachs Are Full, But Our Hearts Are Empty
by Thomas Rocky Wade

HUD's Stewardship of National Urban Policy: A Retrospective View
by Yvonne Scruggs

A Personal Reflection: Defensible Space"
by Barry F. Hersh

As They Saw It: HUD's Secretaries Reminisce About Carrying Out the Mission
by Joseph Foote

A Personal Reflection: Manufactured Housing: Quality and Affordability
by Roger Huddleston

The Triumph of Housing Allowance Programs: How a Fundamental Policy Conflict Was Resolved
by Louis Winnickby

A Personal Reflection: Public Housing-Dissed and Stressed in a Brave New World
by Thomas E. Nutt-Powell

HUD's Basic Missions and Some of Their Key Implications
by Anthony Downs

A Personal Reflection: War Zone to Safe Neighborhood
by R. Richard Fleene

A Personal Reflection: Decent, Safe, and Sanitary Housing
by Mary Lou Miller

Legacy for a Reinvented HUD: Charting a New Course in Changing and Demanding Times
by Henry G. Cisneros



Cityscape is published three times a year by the Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Subscriptions are available at no charge and single copies at a nominal fee. The journal is also available on line at http://www.

PD&R welcomes submissions to the Refereed Papers section of the journal. Our referee process is double blind and timely, and our referees are highly qualified. The managing editor will also respond to authors who submit outlines of proposed papers regarding the suitability of those proposals for inclusion in Cityscape. Send manuscripts or outlines to

Opinions expressed in the articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of HUD or the U.S. government.

Visit PD&R’s website,, to find this publication and others sponsored by PD&R. Other services of HUD USER, PD&R’s research information service, include listservs, special interest and bimonthly publications (best practices and significant studies from other sources), access to public use databases, and a hotline (800–245–2691) for help with accessing the information you need.


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