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U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development - 1930-2010

U.S. President
HUD Secretary
Home Ownership
Community Development
Herbert Hoover Franklin D. Roosevelt      
1932 Federal Home Loan Bank Act 1933 Homeowners’ Loan Act National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933   1934 National Housing Act U.S. Housing Act of 1937  
1933 Homeowners Loan Corporation (HOLC) Formed 1932 Home Loan Bank Board and Bank System Created   1934 FHA Created 1937 Public Housing Administration 1938 Fannie Mae (FNMA)
  HOLC provides privatized mortgage refinancing 1934 FHA 203 and Title I FNMA (provides secondary market for FHA)  
      Portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt  
Row houses with boarded windows.   1934 Section 207 Multifamily Insurance 1934 Public housing, low rent   Public Housing Construction
(60-year loans)
Great Depression Row houses pictured from street level.      
    Harry S. Truman    
Official pointing to bar chart of federally assisted housing starts.     1944 Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill) U.S. Housing Act of 1949
  1942 National Housing Agency formed Portrait of Harry S. Truman. 1947 Housing and Finance Agency Formed  
  1942 Residential construction halted except for war housing. FHA prioritized for war housing: Section 607 and 608   1947 FHA insurance for manufactured housing FNMA expanded to cover VA loans
Snow covered residential block with cars lining each side of the street.     Public housing construction expanded  
World War II
1942 Federal Rent Control Native American woman standing at gate in front of home. 1944 Veterans loan programs 1949 VA Home Loans expanded, Farmers Home Administration Section 502
  Dwight D. Eisenhower      
    U.S. Housing Act of 1954    
  Robert Weaver speaking at podium in front of HUD headquarters.      
Two children smiling.   FHA insurance for disaster recovery    
Urban Renewal   1954 Urban Renewal Expanded; Urban Planning Grants 1954 Urban Renewal Administration (formerly Division of Slum Clearance and Urban Development under the HHFA) 1955 Public Facility Grants    
  Multifamily insurance and direct loans expanded   House with shuttered windows.  
  1953 Federal Rent Control ends Row of houses with construction site in foreground.   1959 Section 232 FHA Insurance for nursing homes Section 202 Direct Loans
John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson     Richard M. Nixon
    Robert C. Weaver   Robert C. Wood George W. Romney
  Lyndon B. Johnson signing paper. Department of Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 1966 Model Cities Act   HUD Act of 1968 1968 Fair Housing Act
HUD logo. 1965 HUD Created     1968 GNMA Created FNMA privatized
    1964 Section 312 Direct Rehab Loans 1965 Section 115 SF Rehab Grants 1968 Section 235 FHA subsidized mortgages  
1961 Open Space Grants   1965 Rehab Grants in Urban Areas: Water and Sewer Grants 1966 Model Cities Grants – coordinate Federal grants in urban areas 1968 New Communities
1961 Section 221(d)(3) BMIR and Direct Loans   1965 Section 23 Leased Housing 1966 Rent Supplement
1967 Public Housing scattered site, turnkey modernization
1968 Section 236 1% Mortgage IRP 1969 Brooke Amendment
REITs authorized Fire escape of brick building. Section 515 USDA Multifamily Program   1968 Section 242 Hospital Insurance 1969 Operation Breakthrough
    Gerald R. Ford Jimmy Carter  
  James T. Lynn Carla A. Hills Patricia R. Harris Moon Landrieu
1970 Emergency Home Finance Act 1973 Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 Housing and Community Development Act of 1977 Housing and Community Development Act of 1978
  1973 Nixon Moratorium on HUD Programs HUD headquarters building.   1978 Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation 1978 IG Act
  Urban Homesteading 1974 FHA Graduated Payment Mortgages and Section 223(F) Refinancing 1975 Emergency Homeowners Relief    
  Group of children. 1974 CDBG 1977 UDAG  
1970 Experimental Housing Allowance 1973 Subsidized Housing Moratorium 1974 Multifamily Coinsurance Public Housing Operating Subsidies expanded; Section 8 project-based (LMSA and NC/SR); and Section 8 Existing Housing (tenant-based)   1978 Flex Sub Mod Rehab 1978 Mod Rehab created 1979 Federal Preferences
1972 Lead Paint Research 1973 PD&R Created 1974 Manufactured Housing Standards 1974 RESPA 1975 HMDA 1977 CRA  
Ronald Reagan       George Bush
Samuel R. Pierce, Jr.       Jack F. Kemp
Construction worker in hard hat measuring between studs. 1983 Housing and Urban Recovery Act   1987 McKinney Act 1989 Fair Housing Amendments Act 1989 HUD Reform Act
  HUD headquarters with townhouses in foreground.   1987 Interagency Council on Homelessness  
  1983 FHA: ARMs; SAMs (Shared Appreciation); Indexed Mortgage Insurance   1987 Nehemiah Grants One person sitting and one standing on each of two successive stoops.
  1982 State CDBG Program Child holding woman’s cheeks and kissing her.   1989 UDAG Terminated
1981 Brooke Amendment = 30% of Income 1983 HODAG Rehab Development Grants 1983 Section 8 NC/SR terminated 1984 Section 8 Voucher Demonstration Program 1987 Voucher Program authorized 1987 ELIHPA Preservation 1988 Drug Elimination Program 1989 HODAG Terminated 1989 MF Coinsurance terminated
  1983 RESPA Amendments 1986 LIHTC 1987 Emergency Shelter Grants Supporting Housing Section 8 SRO   1988 FHIP
  William J. Clinton      
  Henry G. Cisneros   Andrew M. Cuomo  
1990 National Affordable Housing Act (Cranston-Gonzalez) Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 1992 Housing Community Development Act 1993 GRPA Native American Housing Assistance and Self Determination Act of 1996 1997 MAHRA Mark-to-Market 1998 Public Housing
   Reform Act (QHWRA)
  1992 OFHEO   Three youth sitting on stoop.  
1990 FHA Single Family Reform 1990 HOME Program, HOPE I-III   1996 Homeownership Zones 1998 FHA SF Accelerated Disposition and Asset Control Areas  
  1992 YouthBuild 1993 EZ/EC Children jumping rope in front of residential building.  
1990 HOME Program 1990 LIHPRHA Preservation 1991 Mod Rehab terminated
1990 Section 811 (Disabilities) 1990 Section 202 Capital Grants 1992 FHA MF Risk Sharing 1992 MTO 1992 Family Unification Program 1993 HOPE VI 1995 MTW 1996 Indian Housing Block Grant 1997 Mark to Market 1998 Public Housing Reform; voucher and certificate merger  
1990 Family Self-Sufficiency Program 1990 HOPWA 1992 Shelter Plus Care 1992 GSE Affordable Housing Goals 1992 Section 154 Indian Housing Loan Guarantees 1993 Lead Paint Abatement Grants 1998 Resident Opportunities and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS) 1999 HUD Rural Housing and Economic Development Program 1999 Olmstead Decision
George W. Bush       Barack Obama
Mel Martinez   Alphonso Jackson Steve Preston Shaun Donovan
American Homeownership and Economic Opportunity Act of 2000 2000 Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000     Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 HEARTH Act of 2009
    Washington monument with cherry blossoms in foreground. 2008 FHFA  
One person sitting and one standing on each of two successive stoops. FHA Hybrid ARM 2003 ADDI Home Value Collapse and Foreclosure Crisis 2008 FHA Modernization  
2000 Renewal Communities     Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP) I NSP II Sustainable Communities Initiative
Row of houses.     2008 Housing Trust Fund Authorized  
Manufactured Housing Consensus Committee 2000 New Markets Tax Credit
Hurricane Katrina Relief and Recovery
Row of houses. 2008 New RESPA final rule issued TARP 2008 HUD-VASH (Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing) 2009 Rapid Re-Housing 2009 Emergency Solutions Grants Program Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009
Julián Castro        
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010     Three children walking across wooden path.  
Group of six people working at table.       2015 HUD celebrates 50 years as Federal agency
  2010 Emergency Homeowners Loan Program Family of four sitting in front of house.    
NSP III   2014 Promise Zones    
2010 Choice Neighborhoods Initiative 2010 Section 811 Project Rental Assistance Demonstration 2013 Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD)   2016 Housing Opportunity Through Modernization Act of 2016  
2014 Jobs Plus 2015 Affirmatively
Fair Housing Rule
2015 ConnectHome
Workers constructing boardwalk. 2016 Smoke Free Rule 2016 Small Area Fair Market Rent Rule 2016 National Disaster Resilience Competition 2016 Tribal HUD-VASH

the 1930s

Amidst widespread unemployment and financial collapse resulting from the 1929 stock market crash, Congress passed the Emergency Relief and Construction Act of 1932, creating the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) and authorizing loans to private corporations providing housing for low-income families. As the Great Depression eased somewhat and the prospect of improved financial status for individual families increased, the National Housing Act of 1934 was passed to relieve unemployment and stimulate the release of private credit in the hands of banks and lending institutions for home repairs and construction. This law also created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), the main federal agency handling mortgage insurance. The FHA's assumption of risk, through its insurance programs, made possible the amortization of mortgage loans with regular monthly payments and a secondary market for home mortgages, thus freeing up funds for home loans. In 1938, the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) was chartered by the FHA as a subsidiary of the RFC. These early measures stimulated housing construction, and the United States Housing Act of 1937 authorized loans to local public housing agencies for lower-rent public housing construction expenses.

More about the 1930s

As the Great Depression eased somewhat and the prospect of improved financial status for individual families increased, the National Housing Act of 1934 was passed to relieve unemployment and stimulate the release of private credit in the hands of banks and lending institutions.
Established the public housing program. In response, state governments pass enabling legislation to create a nationwide network of local public housing agencies. Later amended (in 1974) to add Section 8 - for both tenant-based (Housing Choice Vouchers and project-based assistance).
America's Great Depression is regarded as having begun in 1929 with the Stock Market crash and ending in 1941 with America's entry into World War II.
The increase in housing construction following World War II, led to the growth of suburban areas and to new housing programs for declining urban areas authorized by the Housing Act of 1949.
Following World War II, and continuing into the early 1970s, "urban renewal" referred primarily to public efforts to revitalize aging and decaying inner cities, although some suburban communities undertook such projects as well.
Federal involvement in housing rapidly expanded to include financing of new construction, preservation of existing housing resources, and urban renewal.
Expansion of Urban Renewal. The “workable program” - localities required to adopt comprehensive revitalization plans for receipt of federal economic development aid. Expansion of FHA insurance vehicles to incentivize private development of different types of multifamily housing.
The Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 created HUD as a cabinet-level agency and initiated a leased housing program to make privately owned housing available to low-income families.
Section 3 - economic opportunities for low income persons. Section 235 and 236 subsidized mortgages for homeownership and affordable rental housing. New Towns program.
HUD's Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R), created in 1973, was tasked with conducting research on priority housing and community development issues.
Established major rental assistance programs - public housing operating subsidies, Section 8 vouchers and project-based section 8 assistance. Created the CDBG block grant program, consolidating previous “categorical” programs.
The 1980s saw significant measures to ensure housing opportunities for all with new rental programs, Low-Income Housing Tax Credits, and changes in rules governing thrift institutions.
Landmark legislation for homelessness programs and housing opportunities.
Amended the Fair Housing Act to prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities or based on family status.
Created the HOME block grant program. Stabilized the FHA insurance fund. Converted the Section 202 program (elderly housing) to capital grants and rental assistance; added the Section 811 (disabilities) and Shelter Plus Care (permanent supportive housing for the homeless) programs.
Major amendments and reforms to HUD programs (HOME, public housing). Created the Housing for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) program.
The Native American Housing Assistance and Self Determination Act of 1996 (NAHASDA) created the Indian Housing Block Grant program.
The Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and. Affordability Act of 1997, more commonly called “Mark To Market” initiated a series of reforms and cost savings measures to help maintain and preserve the stock of long-term affordable subsidized housing in the Project-based Section 8 program. The primary mechanism for cost savings was through restructuring of FHA-insured multifamily mortgages to reduce debt service costs and thereby achieve reductions in annual Section 8 discretionary spending. The Act also helped strengthen the role of the State Housing Finance Agencies as providers and facilitators of affordable housing across the country.
- retitled as Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998. Public housing and Section 8 voucher reforms. Added PHA Plan requirement. Created the ROSS program.
HUD worked with public agencies, private partners, nonprofit, faith-based, and community organizations to expand the availability of affordable housing, to improve structural and living conditions in HUD-insured and assisted rental housing projects, to promote wider affordable rental housing opportunities, and to stabilize and sustain communities.
Consolidated HUD’s homeless programs
Economic stimulus bill in response to recession. Targeted spending on infrastructure, health, affordable housing, education, and energy. Also included tax incentives and expanded unemployment benefits.
Response to subprime mortgage and national financial crisis. Created the FHFA. Improvements in federal regulation of mortgage lending institutions.
Response to the mortgage market collapse and subsequent recession. Made numerous reforms to regulation of mortgage lending and financial institutions. Created the CFPB.