Section IV—Selected Bibliography of Periodical Literature
- Prior to Federal Empowerment Zones
"Are Proposed Kemp-Garcia 'Urban Enterprise Zones' A Sound Approach to U.S. Urban Revitalization?" Congressional Digest, Vol. 61, p. 76, March 1982. "Do Enterprise Zones Work?" Patrick G. Marshall, Editorial Research Reports, Vol.1, No. 16, p. 230, April 28,1989. "Enterprise Zones," Congressional Digest, Vol. 64, p. 131, May 1985. "Enterprise Zones," Stuart Butler, Universe, October 1981. "Enterprise Zones as a Means of Reducing Structural Unemployment," Stuart E. Weiner, Economic Review, Vol. 69, No. 3, pp. 3-16, March 1984.
Enterprise Zones: Pioneering in the Inner City,Stuart M. Butler, (Washington: Heritage Foundation, 1981). "Experiments in Employment-A British Cure," John E. Schwarz and Thomas J. Volgy, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 66, p. 104, March/April 1988. "Financing Urban Development: The Joint Efforts of Governments and the Private Sector," G. Edward DeSeve, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, p. 58, November 1986. "Fiscal and Employment Impacts of Enterprise Zones," Richard Funkhouser and Edward Lorenz, Atlanta Economic journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 62-76, July 1987.
From Ideology to Incrementalism: The Concept of Urban Enterprise Zones in Great Britain and the United States,David Hardison (New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1982). "The Impact of the Enterprize Zone on Urban Areas," Benjamin M. Hawkins, Growth & Change, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 35-40, January 1984. "Judgement Policies Used in Assessing Enterprise Zone Economic Success Criteria," Paul Miesing and Thomas C. Dandridge, Decision Science, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 50-64, Winter 1986. "Kemp's Rx for Inner Cities," Sidney J. Tanne, Journal of the Institute for Socioeconomic Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 94-106, Summer 1981. "The Process of Industrial Development in Smaller Communities and Rural Areas," Fred J. Gassaway, Business & Economic Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 33-40, November 1982. "Public Incentives vs. Private Decisions: Does the Proposed Enterprise Zone Legislation Offer the Appropriate Inducements?" Robert D. Hamilton, III, and Rajeswararo S. Chaganti, International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1-19, August 1987. "A Short History of Enterprise Zones," Madsen Pirie, National Review, Vol. 33, p. 26, January 23, 1981. "State Enterprise Zones," Congressional Digest, Vol. 64, p. 132, May 1985.
State Urban Enterprise Zones: A Policy Overview,Steven Gold (Washington: National Conference of State Legislatures, 1982).
Urban Enterprise Zones: A Selected Review of the Literature With Annotations,Andrew Gargooian (IAAO, 1984). Enterprise Zones and the Inner City Poor, Bret C. Birdsong, Statement before the Committee on Way and Means, U.S. House of Representatives. October 17, 1989 10 pp. Discussion of relevant tax incentive research literature in relation to probable consequences for inner city poor.
- After the Initiation of Federal Empowerment Zones
"Expanding Civic Opportunity: Urban Empowerment Zones", Marilyn Gittell, et al. Urban Affairs Review, Vol.33: pp.530-58 March 1998.
Abstract: Examines findings of the first year of the 1993 federal Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Communities Program (EZ), focusing on community organizations' participation in developing EZs, and their ability to address community problem; US. Some focus on the Atlanta Empowerment Zone Corporation (AEZC), the Empower Baltimore Management Corporation (EBMC), and the Camden Empowerment Trust Commission (CETC).
"Will You Be Better Off In Four More Years?" Eric L. Smith, Black Enterprise, Vol.27: pp.54-8 Jan. 1997.
Abstract: How the Clinton administration has affected the economic conditions of Blacks; empowerment zones and other issues.
"People, Power, Politics: An Assessment of the Federal Empowerment Zones", Renee Berger, Planning, Vol.63: pp.4-9 Fall 1997.
Abstract: How the first six cities in the federal Empowerment Zones/Enterprise Communities program have planned and implemented programs to create jobs and economic opportunity; US. The Empowerment Zones/Enterprise Communities Program, authorized in 1994, provides tax advantages to businesses, flexible financing tools, and community development grants in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods; examples from Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, New York City, and Philadelphia/Camden.
"Understanding Urban Unrest: from Reverend King to Rodney King", Dennis E. Gale, Sage Publications (LC 95-50225) (ISBN 0-7619-0094-2) $48; (ISBN 0-7619-0095-0) pa, 1996, xii+228p.
Abstract: Compares federal programs to reduce urban poverty and other causes of interracial mob violence, since 1966; some focus on the Model Cities program, 1969-75, and the Empowerment Zones-Enterprise Communities programs (EZECs) of the 1990s.
"From Enterprise Zones to Empowerment Zones: the Community Context of Urban Economic Development", Gerry Riposa, American Behavioral Scientist, 39:536-51 Mr/Ap 1996.
Abstract: Compares the federal "enterprise zone" program, offering only tax and regulatory relief, and "empowerment zones", which promote development while emphasizing community participation and social services; US.
"U.S. Seeks to Rebuild Battered Inner Cities", Andrew Cuomo, Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 10:92-5 Winter 1995.
Abstract: Describes federal assistance available to communities designated "Urban Empowerment Zones" and "Enterprise Communities" by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1994. Benefits include tax-exempt facility bonds, social-service block grants, and tax credits for wages and depreciable tangible property.
"The strange career of enterprise zones", William Fulton and Morris Newman, Governing, 7:32-4+ March 1994.
Abstract: Examines state and local efforts, political debate surrounding the concept, and Clinton administration plan to focus federal assistance on nine urban and rural "empowerment zones"; US.
"The administration's empowerment zone and enterprise community proposal: hearing, May 27 and June 8, 1993", U.S. House of Rep. Comm. on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, Subcomm. on Economic Growth and Credit Formation, Supt. of Documents (ISBN 0-16-041744-9) 1993, iv+211p. ; 103d Cong., lst session, Serial No. 103-33
Abstract: Examines President Clinton's proposal to promote urban economic growth through the creation of ten empowerment zones and 100 enterprise communities. Stresses tax incentives for job creation, active federal investment in the zones, and boosting law enforcement resources.
"Enterprise zones struggle to make their mark: Clinton's plan for aiding depressed areas may prevail; bipartisan support keeps the concept alive", Jeffrey L. Katz, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Vol.51: pp.1880-3, July 17, 1993.
Abstract: Reviews previous legislative initiatives and compares administration plan for "empowerment zones" and "enterprise communities" with congressional proposals. Outlines Clinton plan to coordinate government aid rather than rely solely upon tax incentives, and to decrease number of urban and rural areas covered.
"Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities: Reinventing Federalism for Distressed Communities", Edward G. Goetz, THE JOURNAL OF FEDERALISM, Volume 25, Number 3 pp. 117-132, Summer 1995
"Governance in Empowerment Zone Communities: A Preliminary Examination of Governance in Fifteen Empowerment Zone Communities", Robert J. Chaskin and Clark M. Peters, January 1997 Discussion paper at The Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago
"Report Card on Empowerment Zones" Standard and Poor’s CreditWeek Municipal (December 22, 1997)
EZ status lead to an improvement in an issuer’s credit rating and local economy. Decline in job less rate in Detroit from 11% in 1994 to 8.7%. Retention and attraction of large businesses such as Sylvan Learning Systems and Chesapeake Biological Laboratories, Inc. in Baltimore, years of disinvestment in inner cities, unemployment, limited access to capital and shrinking of tax base make growth a challenge. Lack of partnerships between community groups, failure to coordinate services among levels of government.