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Cityscape: Volume 17 Number 3 | Article 5


The goal of Cityscape is to bring high-quality original research on housing and community development issues to scholars, government officials, and practitioners. Cityscape is open to all relevant disciplines, including architecture, consumer research, demography, economics, engineering, ethnography, finance, geography, law, planning, political science, public policy, regional science, sociology, statistics, and urban studies.

Cityscape is published three times a year by the Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Housing Discrimination Today

Volume 17, Number 3

Mark D. Shroder

Michelle P. Matuga

Other Protected Classes: Extending Estimates of Housing Discrimination

Margery Austin Turner
Urban Institute


This article discusses the challenges involved in extending the paired-testing methodology from its original purpose of measuring discrimination based on race and ethnicity to rigorously measuring the incidence and forms of discrimination against other protected classes of homeseekers. It highlights three critical design challenges that any such study must resolve and draws on three recent pilot studies to illustrate these challenges and how they can be resolved. The power of paired testing is greatest when three key conditions are met: (1) the standard for comparison is unambiguous, (2) the relevant segments of the housing market can be identified and tested, and (3) testers’ status is apparent to housing providers.

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