Skip to main content

Resilient Homes Meet Resilient Power Systems: Optimizing Factory-Installed Solar + Storage


Report Acceptance Date: June 2022 (164 pages)

Posted Date: January 09, 2024

The aim of the project was to develop a strategy called factory-installed solar + storage (FISS) for factory-built housing, using lean manufacturing principles. FISS involves incorporating photovoltaic solar generation of electricity and energy storage into modular homes to enhance their resiliency, using factory efficiencies to overcome cost and installation barriers typical of such systems. The research team examined how high-performance modular home factories could integrate solar + storage into their existing construction systems, aiming to improve quality, productivity, and cost-effectiveness. The project identified potential barriers, including initial costs, permitting, utility interconnection, transportation of finished modules, and battery replacement. However, it also recognized the value of incorporating solar + storage, such as resiliency benefits, opportunities for utilities, clean energy equity for affordable housing, and new markets for modular factories. A case study and analysis of the FISS strategy found that it could potentially reduce total costs by approximately 27% compared to onsite installation. The analysis showed that FISS could generate positive net present value for homeowners in five of six locations examined, assuming long-term, low-interest financing through a mortgage. Additionally, solar + storage systems could power 25% to 100% of a home's electricity needs for up to four days during grid outages.


All Publications
Search for Publications
Search for Ongoing Research