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Cityscape: Volume 4 Number 2


Racially and Ethnically Diverse Urban Neighborhoods

Volume 4, Number 2


Racially and Ethnically Diverse Urban Neighborhoods

From the Secretary

Andrew Cuomo, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

The founding premise of our Nation was opportunity for all. That is our goal. If we are to succeed in our pursuit of that goal, we must tear down the barriers that divide us: We must reject the attitudes and prejudices, the stereotypes and discrimination, that are so destructive of a truly unified people.

Ours is a richly diverse Nation, and it is in our common interest to celebrate what unites us -- the fundamental values, the dreams and aspirations -- rather than dwell on what sets us apart. Working together, we can reach what President Clinton calls "One America" -- one Nation, one community, sharing the benefits and responsibilities of a common effort and a proud heritage.

It is a regrettable fact that most metropolitan areas harbor enclaves of isolation that condemn residents to poverty and despair. These enclaves represent a failed model of community building, but there is another, more successful model in our urban centers: stable, diverse communities that until now have been largely overlooked.

This issue of Cityscape contains case studies of 14 racially and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in 9 cities, along with grassroots strategies and public- and private-sector roles for maintaining them. Activities within these communities support jobs, education, and housing for all residents -- opportunity for all.

We at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development offer this issue of Cityscape in the hope that it will prove enlightening to our readers. We believe it can be especially useful to those directly involved in local community-building activities and the pursuit of an urban tomorrow that promises a better quality of life for all Americans.

From the Editor

Xavier de Souza Briggs, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Research, Evaluation, and Monitoring.

This issue of Cityscape differs from all that have preceded it. Instead of presenting a group of articles on a specific theme, this volume contains a single, unique study of stable, racially and ethnically diverse urban communities.

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development worked with the Policy Research Action Group (PRAG) to study the factors central to creating and sustaining viable, inclusive, diverse, stable urban neighborhoods. In each of nine cities presented here, PRAG coordinated a team of researchers and local community-based partners to: interview residents, businesspeople, and community leaders; review key documents; and otherwise assess the basis for diversity and stability within these special neighborhoods. Each team also drew on prior studies and census analyses.

Two distinct models of stable, diverse communities emerge from this study. The first model includes deliberate efforts to maintain a balance of African-American and Caucasian residents in an already self-aware, middle-income neighborhood. The second model is reflected in a multi-ethnic, multiracial neighborhood -- "beyond black and white" -- that focuses on a community identity and on maintaining economic and racial stability as a byproduct of other assets.

Given the considerable -- and constant -- media emphasis on forces that destabilize and segregate urban communities, this encouraging study of diversity protected, even celebrated, may pleasantly surprise as well as inform Cityscape readers.

Advisory Board

Editor: Xavier de Souza Briggs

Managing Editor: William F. Heenan

Guest Editors: John Goering, Gregory Squire

Elijah Anderson
University of Pennsylvania

Roy Bahl
Georgia State University

Ann Bowman
University of South Carolina

Henry Coleman
Rutgers University

Greg Duncan
University of Michigan

Amy Glasmeier
Pennsylvania State University

Norman J. Glickman
Rutgers University

Harvey Goldstein
University of North Carolina

Jane Gravelle
Congressional Research Service

Bennett Harrison
New School for Social Research

Steven P. Hornburg
Fannie Mae Foundation

Helen F. Ladd
Duke University

Wilhelmina A. Leigh
Joint Center for Political and
Economic Studies

Laurence E. Lynn, Jr.
University of Chicago

Sandra Newman
Johns Hopkins University

John Tuccillo
National Association of Realtors

Avis Vidal
New School for Social Research

Don Villarejo
California Institute for Rural Studies

Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research strives to share HUD-funded and other research on housing and urban policy issues with scholars, government officials, and others involved in setting policy and determining the direction of future research.

Cityscape focuses on innovative ideas, policies, and programs that show promise in revitalizing cities and regions, renewing their infrastructure, and creating economic opportunities. A typical issue consists of articles that examine various aspects of a theme of particular interest to our audience.

Chapter 1: Neighborhood Racial and Ethnic Diversity in U.S. Cities
by Philip Nyden, John Lukehart, Michael T. Maly, and William Peterman

Chapter 2: Overview of the 14 Neighborhoods Studied
by Philip Nyden, John Lukehart, Michael T. Maly, and William Peterman

Chapter 3: West Mount Airy, Philadelphia
by Barbara Ferman, Theresa Singleton, and Don DeMarco

Chapter 4: Vollintine-Evergreen, Memphis
by Michael Kirby

Chapter 5: Park Hill, Denver
by Katherine Woods

Chapter 6: Sherman Park, Milwaukee
by Edward Valent and Gregory Squires

Chapter 7: Rogers Park, Edgewater, Uptown, and Chicago Lawn, Chicago
by Michael T. Maly and Michael Leachman

Chapter 8: Jackson Heights, New York
by Philip Kasinitz, Mohamad Bazzi, and Randal Doane

Chapter 9: Fort Greene, New York
by Jan Rosenberg

Chapter 10: Ethnic Diversity in Southeast Seattle
by Andrew Gordon, Hubert Locke, and Cy Ulberg

Chapter 11: San Antonio and Fruitvale
by Mona Younis

Chapter 12: Houston Heights
by Karl Eschback, Jacqueline Maria Hagan, Nestor P. Rodriguez, and Anna Zakos

Chapter 13: Conclusion
by Philip Nyden, John Lukehart, Michael T. Maly, and William Peterma



Cityscape is published three times a year by the Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Subscriptions are available at no charge and single copies at a nominal fee. The journal is also available on line at http://www.

PD&R welcomes submissions to the Refereed Papers section of the journal. Our referee process is double blind and timely, and our referees are highly qualified. The managing editor will also respond to authors who submit outlines of proposed papers regarding the suitability of those proposals for inclusion in Cityscape. Send manuscripts or outlines to

Opinions expressed in the articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of HUD or the U.S. government.

Visit PD&R’s website,, to find this publication and others sponsored by PD&R. Other services of HUD USER, PD&R’s research information service, include listservs, special interest and bimonthly publications (best practices and significant studies from other sources), access to public use databases, and a hotline (800–245–2691) for help with accessing the information you need.


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