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Assisted Housing: National and Local

Picture of Subsidized Households

Since passage of the U.S. Housing Act of 1937, the federal government has provided housing assistance to low-income renters. Most of these housing subsidies were provided under programs administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) or predecessor agencies. All programs covered in this report provide subsidies that reduce rents for low-income tenants who meet program eligibility requirements. Generally, households pay rent equal to 30 percent of their incomes, after deductions, while the federal government pays the remainder of rent or rental costs. To qualify for a subsidy, an applicant’s income must initially fall below a certain income limit. These income limits are HUD-determined, location specific, and vary by household size. Applicants for housing assistance are usually placed on a waiting list until a subsidized unit becomes available.

Assistance provided under HUD programs falls into three categories: public housing, tenant-based, and privately owned, project-based.

In public housing, local housing agencies receive allocations of HUD funding to build, operate or make improvements to housing. The housing is owned by the local agencies. Public housing is a form of project-based subsidy because households may receive assistance only if they agree to live at a particular public housing project.

Currently, tenant based assistance is the most prevalent form of housing assistance provided. Historically, tenant based assistance began with the Section 8 certificate and voucher programs, which were created in 1974 and 1983, respectively. These programs were replaced by the Housing Choice Voucher program, under legislation enacted in 1998. Tenant based programs allow participants to find and lease housing in the private market. Local public housing agencies (PHAs) and some state agencies serving as PHAs enter into contracts with HUD to administer the programs. The PHAs then enter into contracts with private landlords. The housing must meet housing quality standards and other program requirements. The subsidies are used to supplement the rent paid by low-income households. Under tenant-based programs, assisted households may move and take their subsidy with them. The primary difference between certificates and vouchers is that under certificates, there was a maximum rent which the unit may not exceed. By contrast, vouchers have no specific maximum rent; the low-income household must pay any excess over the payment standard, an amount that is determined locally and that is based on the Fair Market Rent. HUD calculates the Fair Market Rent based on the 40th percentile of the gross rents paid by recent movers for non-luxury units meeting certain quality standards.

The third major type of HUD rental assistance is a collection of programs generally referred to as multifamily assisted, or, privately-owned, project-based housing. These types of housing assistance fall under a collection of programs created during the last four decades. What these programs have in common is that they provide rental housing that is owned by private landlords who enter into contracts with HUD in order to receive housing subsidies. The subsidies pay the difference between tenant rent and total rental costs. The subsidy arrangement is termed project-based because the assisted household may not take the subsidy and move to another location. The single largest project-based program was the Section 8 program, which was created in 1974. This program allowed for new construction and substantial rehabilitation that was delivered through a wide variety of financing mechanisms. An important variant of project-based Section 8 was the Loan Management Set Aside (LMSA) program, which was provided in projects financed under Federal Housing Administration (FHA) programs that were not originally intended to provide deep subsidy rental assistance. Projects receiving these LMSA “piggyback” subsidies were developed under the Section 236 program, the Section 221(d)(3) Below Market Interest Rate (BMIR) program, and others that were unassisted when originally developed.

Picture of Subsidized Households does not cover other housing subsidy programs, such as those of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Rural Housing Service, unless they also receive subsidies referenced above. Other programs such as Indian Housing, HOME and Community Development Block Grants (CDBG) are also excluded.

Public Housing Agencies

Other HUD Multifamily data

HUD programs

Populations & numeric codes of places, counties, MSAs










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Please select options from "Query Options" above and click on "Get Results" button.


 

Custom Queries

STEP 1: CHOOSE A GEOGRAPHIC LEVEL. You may query by US totals, state totals, Core-Based Statistical Areas (Metropolitan and Micropolitan definitions as of 2003), census tract, city (defined as city, town, village, incorporated place, or census-designated place), public housing agencies, or individual projects (public housing, multifamily, and Low-Income Housing Tax Credit properties).

STEP 2: SELECT ONE OR MORE ENTITIES FROM THE GEOGRAPHIC LEVEL. Use the CTRL or SHIFT keys to select multiple entities.

STEP 3: CHOOSE ONE OR MORE HUD PROGRAMS. You may choose Public Housing, Housing Choice Vouchers, Section 8 Moderate Rehabilitation, Section 8 New Construction or Substantial Rehabilitation, Section 236, other HUD-assisted multifamily, or LIHTC.

STEP 4: CHOOSE VARIABLES. Depending on the program(s) you choose, you may retrieve data such as the number of units; percent occupied; average income and type; percent distribution of age, disability, and race/ethnicity; and geographic codes such as latitude/longitude. NOTE: not all variables are available for all programs or summary levels.

STEP 5: CHOOSE OUTPUT TYPE. You may view or print your data as HTML tables, or save as comma-delimited text files for further analysis.

Note: output may contain codes indicating missing or restricted data. The definitions of these codes are provided at the end of the Codebook.

Click Here To Start A Query

Click here for detailed examples of queries you can generate using the new query tool.

Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2008. Picture 2008 provides characteristics of assisted housing units and residents, summarized at the national, state, public housing agency (PHA), project,census tract, county, Core-Based Statistical Area and city levels. More about this report. NEW

New for 2008: Core-Based Statistical Areas have replaced the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) summary level in previous Picture reports. Public Housing Developments are now reported using the new Asset Management Project (AMP) codes rather than the older Development Code. Moving to Work (MTW) housing authorities were required to report their tenant data in 2008.

Also in this release: you can create custom queries of the Picture data by geography and by HUD program, and retrieve exactly the data you need (see steps 1-5). Or, you can download complete summary files (see Download section below). You also may export Picture data to your Geographic Information System (GIS) software for mapping (see GIS section below).

Complete Summary Files for Download

Download entire data files for each summary level. Files are compressed (zipped) and will expand to comma-delimited text (.TXT) format. Click on the link to the summary level you want, and then choose a directory on your computer where the extracted file will be placed. NOTE: These files will be national in scope and will include all variables. Some of these files will be large and may take up to 15 minutes to download depending on the speed of your internet connection.

 

2008_county.zip (*.zip, 993 KB)
2008_tract.zip (*.zip, 6.02 MB)
2008_development.zip (*.zip, 3.01 MB)
2008_pha.zip (*.zip, 433 KB)
2008_places.zip (*.zip, 4.30 MB)
Tract_vouchers_picture_2008.zip (*.zip, 2.59 MB)

 

Mapping Picture Data With a GIS

You can bring Picture data into your GIS (Geographic Information System) in several ways:

  • HOW TO CREATE NATIONAL HUD ASSISTED HOUSING LAYERS FROM A PICTURE OF SUBSIDIZED HOUSEHOLDS Download the PDF file. The document refers to 2000 data but works for 2008 data as well.

     
  • MAP ALL HUD ASSISTED PROJECTS: Download the projects_data.exe file. Extract the file to your local computer. The file will contain fields for latitude and longitude. Using these fields, you can create a new shapefile/layer/coverage on your map. Refer to your GIS software documentation for help with importing a text file containing LAT/LONG data. You also may need to change the map projection in order for your points to display properly.
     
  • MAP HUD ASSISTED PROJECTS IN ONE STATE ONLY: Create a query with projects as your geographic level. You may choose one or more programs, but can only query one state at a time. Be sure to include the variables subprogram, latitude, and longitude. The variable program_label will automatically be included in your output. Export your output to comma-delimited text, save on your PC, then import into your GIS software. Refer to your GIS software documentation for help with importing a text file containing LAT/LONG data.
     
  • CREATE THEMATIC (COLOR-CODED) MAPS BY STATE: Create a query with state as your geographic level. Be sure to include the variable code, as well as any other variable you want to symbolize your map with, in your query. Export to comma-delimited text, then import into your GIS software using "spatial join" or similar command. You must already have state boundary files in your GIS. Refer to your GIS software documentation for help with importing data, joining with your existing county boundary files, and creating thematic maps.
     
  • CREATE THEMATIC (COLOR-CODED) MAPS BY 2000 CENSUS TRACT: Create a query with census tracts as your geographic level. Be sure to include the variable code, as well as any other variable you want to symbolize your map with, in your query. The code variable will be in the following format:

    SSCCCTTTTTT
    (2-digit STATE FIPS code, 3-digit COUNTY FIPS code, 6-digit TRACT code)


    Export to comma-delimited text, then import into your GIS software using "spatial join" or similar command. You must already have the year 2000 Census Tract boundary files. Refer to your GIS software documentation for help with importing data, joining with your existing census tract boundary files, and creating thematic maps. It is best to only select census tracts for one county at a time.
     
    • NOTE: GIS boundary files can be downloaded for free from The U.S. Census Bureau or The Geography Network.
    • Documentation

    • View the Codebook (data dictionary describing all variables and values; PDF file opens in a new window).
    • Picture of Subsidized Housing 2008, full report (PDF file opens in a new window) Available for download soon.


Custom Queries

STEP 1: CHOOSE A GEOGRAPHIC LEVEL. You may query by US totals, state totals, Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA/PMSA definitions as of 1999), Census tract, city (defined as city, town, village, incorporated place, or Census-designated place), public housing agencies, or individual projects (public housing, multifamily, and Low-Income Housing Tax Credit properties).

STEP 2: SELECT ONE OR MORE ENTITIES FROM THE GEOGRAPHIC LEVEL. Use the CTRL or SHIFT keys to select multiple entities.

STEP 3: CHOOSE ONE OR MORE HUD PROGRAMS. You may choose Public Housing, Section 8 certificates/vouchers, Section 8 Moderate Rehabilitation, Section 8 New Construction or Substantial Rehabilitation, Section 236, other HUD-assisted multifamily, or LIHTC.

STEP 4: CHOOSE VARIABLES. Depending on the program(s) you choose, you may retrieve data such as the number of units; % occupied; average income and type; % distribution of age, disability, and race/ethnicity; and geographic codes such as latitude/longitude. NOTE: Not all variables are available for all programs.

STEP 5: CHOOSE OUTPUT TYPE. You may view or print your data as HTML tables, or save as comma-delimited text files for further analysis.

CLICK HERE TO START A QUERY

Click here for detailed examples of queries you can generate using the new query tool.

Picture of Subsidized Households describes the 4.9 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2000. Like previous editions, Picture 2000 provides characteristics of assisted housing units and residents, summarized at the national, state, public housing agency (PHA), project, and census tract levels. However, Picture 2000 now includes summary data for Metropolitan Statistical Areas and cities.

Also new in this release: you can create custom queries of the Picture data by geography and by HUD program, and retrieve exactly the data you need (see steps 1-5). Or, you can download complete summary files (see Download section below). You also may export PICTURE data to your Geographic Information System (GIS) software for mapping (see GIS section below).


Download Complete Summary Files

You may download entire summary files by geography. Files are self-extracting compressed files that expand to comma-delimited text (.TXT) files. Click on the file you want, and then choose a directory on your computer where the extracted file will be placed. NOTE: These files are national in scope and include all variables. Some of these files are large, and may take up to 15 minutes to download depending on the speed of your internet connection.

File name Size (MB) Records Geographic coverage Programmatic coverage
all_pha_2000.exe 0.6 6,412 All PHAs All applicable programs
all_projects_2000.exe 4.2 58,417 All public housing, multifamily, and LIHTC projects Public housing, multifamily, and LIHTC
certs_vouchers_census_tract_2000.exe 2.6 69,422 All census tracts Section 8 Vouchers and Certificates
all_census_tract_2000.exe 2.9 69,424 All census tracts All programs
all_cities_2000.exe 3.6 178,757 Cities, towns, villages, incorporated places, and Census Designated Places All programs


Mapping PICTURE Data With a GIS

You can bring PICTURE data into your GIS (Geographic Information System) in several ways:

  • HOW TO CREATE NATIONAL HUD ASSISTED HOUSING LAYERS FROM A PICTURE OF SUBSIDIZED HOUSEHOLDS: Download the PDF file.

  • MAP ALL HUD ASSISTED PROJECTS: Download the projects_data.exe file. Extract the file to your local computer. The file will contain fields for latitude and longitude. Using these fields, you can create a new shapefile/layer/coverage on your map. Refer to your GIS software documentation for help with importing a text file containing LAT/LONG data. You also may need to change the map projection in order for your points to display properly.

  • MAP HUD ASSISTED PROJECTS IN ONE STATE ONLY: Create a query with projects as your geographic level. You may choose one or more programs, but can only query one state at a time. Be sure to include the variables subprogram, latitude, and longitude. The variable program_label will automatically be included in your output. Export your output to comma-delimited text, save on your PC, then import into your GIS software. Refer to your GIS software documentation for help with importing a text file containing LAT/LONG data.

  • CREATE THEMATIC (COLOR-CODED) MAPS BY STATE: Create a query with state as your geographic level. Be sure to include the variable code, as well as any other variable you want to symbolize your map with, in your query. Export to comma-delimited text, then import into your GIS software using "spatial join" or similar command. You must already have state boundary files in your GIS. Refer to your GIS software documentation for help with importing data, joining with your existing county boundary files, and creating thematic maps.

  • CREATE THEMATIC (COLOR-CODED) MAPS BY 2000 CENSUS TRACT: Create a query with census tracts as your geographic level. Be sure to include the variable code, as well as any other variable you want to symbolize your map with, in your query. The code variable will be in the following format:
    SSCCCTTTTTT
    (2-digit STATE FIPS code, 3-digit COUNTY FIPS code, 6-digit TRACT code)

    Export to comma-delimited text, then import into your GIS software using "spatial join" or similar command. You must already have the year 2000 Census Tract boundary files. Refer to your GIS software documentation for help with importing data, joining with your existing census tract boundary files, and creating thematic maps. It is best to only select census tracts for one county at a time.

  • NOTE: GIS boundary files can be downloaded for free from The U.S. Census Bureau or The Geography Network.


Documentation

  • View the Codebook (data dictionary describing all variables and values; PDF, opens in new window)
  • Picture of Subsidized Housing 2000, full report (PDF file, opens in new window) Available for download soon

  • This Web site sketches a picture of nearly five million subsidized households across the United States. It includes: (1) Totals; (2) Indian Housing; (3) Public Housing; (4) Section 8 Certificates and Vouchers; (5) Section 8 Moderate Rehabilitation; (6) Section 8 New and Substantial Rehabilitation; (7) Section 236; (8) Other HUD subsidies; and (9) Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC). Each line of data is identified by these key numbers, 1-9, in the second position of each data record.

    Data are available for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. To view or download data for a particular State, please select from either the map (state abbreviation) or the appropriate letter below.

    US

    U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map

     

     

    United States Summary Data are also available for viewing or downloading

     

    Project, Agency, and State Summaries:

     

     

    Download files for all areas at once

     

    Project, Agency, and State Summaries:
    Census Tract Summaries (Neighborhoods):

     

     

    Download files to help load data into a spreadsheet or database

     

    When you view a file, you can locate any name or number by the Find command in your browser. The view shows mnemonics every 22 lines to help label the data, but you also need to read the Detailed Explanation of the Variables. The downloadable files are comma- and quote-delimited and do not have the mnemonic lines.

    Documentation

    More details about the data can be obtained by selecting from the following topics:

    The files use May 1998 through June 1998 data on the types of households in subsidized housing programs. The Census Tract Summary (Neighborhood) files show census tract data as of 1990. This is a working document and will be corrected as new information is received. We have tried to minimize errors, but the data come from so many different sources that errors undoubtedly remain. The material was compiled by Paul Burke 202-708-1060 x5888, who will appreciate comments and corrections.


    Highlights

    Major Findings

    • The report covers nearly five million subsidized housing units, with 11 million people. Data on the occupants are missing on 16% of these units. Data on location are also missing on 16% of units, but not always the same units (pp. 6-7)

    • A quarter of households are wage earners. The average income of subsidized households is $9,500 per year, and 17% have incomes below $5,000. Most projects have a moderate income mix. (pp. 8-10)

    • A third of households are elderly. Over half are minorities. Two fifths include a single adult with children. (pp. 8-14)

    • Subsidized households have been in their subsidy program for 6 years on average, and recent arrivals averaged 1 3/4 years (21 months) on the waiting list. (pp. 13-14)

    • The average subsidized unit is in a neighborhood where one eighth of the neighborhood are subsidized, one quarter are poor, and half are minority. (pp. 13-16)

    • Six sevenths of people in the United States have one or more subsidized housing units in their neighborhood. (p. 16)

    • Most projects and housing agencies are small, but most subsidized units are in the large projects and agencies. (pp. 17, 40)

    The information in this report is neither private nor copyrighted and may be copied. When citing it, please include the title with date: A Picture of Subsidized Households in 1998.


    Timeliness of Data

    A major goal of these studies has been to show the wide diversity of households served in different projects and neighborhoods. Therefore most effort has been spent on obtaining recent household data. Older data are used for the number of units in each project and agency. Fortunately the number of units does not change much, so the older data on units stay quite accurate.

    Dates of Data on the Following Subjects: Averages & Percents of Households, & Number of Certificates+Vouchers in Tracts

    Date of Study Public & Indian Housing, S.8 Certificates+Vouchers, S.8 Moderate Rehabilitation S.8 New+Substant.Rehab., S.236, Other Subsidy Tax Credits Completeness (average for all programs)
    1998 5/98 7/98 1996 84%
    1997 6/97 7/97 NA 80%
    1996 9/96 10/95 NA 75%
    1993 *8/93 NA NA *80%
    1970s *9/77 NA NA *81%

    Dates of Data on the Following Subjects: Number of Units in Agencies & Projects

    Date of Study Public & Indian Housing, S.8 Certificates+Vouchers, S.8 Moderate Rehabilitation S.8 New+Substant.Rehab., S.236, Other Subsidy Tax Credits Completeness (average for all programs)
    1998 5/98 9/95 12/94 100%
    1997 6/97 9/95 12/94 100%
    1996 9/95 9/95 12/94 100%
    1993 *8/93 NA NA *100%
    1970s *6/77 NA NA *100%

    * Public & Indian Housing only


    Differences from the 1997 and 1996 File

    Used more recent & more complete data. Differences from previous reports generally reflect this improved coverage, more than true change over time.

    Added brief descriptions of programs.

    Added codes & summaries for sub-programs in the Office of Housing, such as Section 202 and Loan Management Set-Asides.

    Added "household income as percent of adjusted local median income" for Office of Housing programs, so it is now available for all programs.

    Added data on spending for Section 236 and "Other" subsidies. Spending was not updated in Public and Indian Housing, but changes in occupied units may affect figures on spending per unit.

    Slightly longer project names & addresses.

    Improved weighting: when Public, Indian, Certificates+Vouchers, or Moderate Rehabilitation reported more units in the last 30 months than the total occupied units (i.e. they have not reported move-outs) we use the most recent reports, up to the number of units occupied. Previously we used all reports in the past 30 months. This change results in more recent data and a more accurate description of current occupants.

    More specific geographic codes for multi-county agencies: when they are in more than one county (or place, zip code, etc.) we try to determine which county has the most units, and if it has at least a third, we use that county code, otherwise we still use 888 as a code for multiple counties.

    Added standard numeric state codes and rearranged county & tract codes into standard 12-character Census tract FIPS code

    Corrected calculations of income mix, resulting in 11% larger estimates of income mix in private subsidized projects, and 4% larger nationally.

    Dropped data on assets, to protect disclosure of locations of elderly households with significant assets.

    Combined counts of 0-1 bedrooms, and dropped 2 bedrooms, which can be obtained by subtraction.

    Other Differences from the 1996 File

    More addresses and geographic codes.

    Households which have used portability to move, are now counted under the agency that pays their subsidy, not the place they moved to. Note that if portability households are the only ones reported, their geographic codes reflect where they moved to, rather than the true location of the agency.


    Where to Get Data

    This report is available from HUD USER at 800-245-2691 or 202-708-3178 (TDD 800-877-8674), P O Box 6091, Washington, D.C. 20850.

    The text and more complete data (including all projects, neighborhood summaries, and other years) are also on Internet at:

    https://www.huduser.gov/datasets/assthsg.html

    People without Internet access may obtain the computer files from HUD USER for a fee.

    If you browse the file on Internet, your browser probably has a "look for" button, so you can move quickly to any city name, project name, project number, etc. If you download the data to your own computer, you can use a spreadsheet, database, or other package. Such packages let you:

    • Jump to any part of the file (often using the f5 key, or a command to "look for" a specific name)

    • Sort the records to see the highest incomes, or most concentrated tracts, or most integrated large projects, etc. (for example sort by record type and income)

    • Print selected items (highlight items you want, and/or set width of other items to zero)

    • Print a referral list of subsidized housing in an area, with size, turnover, % elderly, neighborhood characteristics, etc.

    • Prepare maps, using latitude & longitude from this file (44 colored maps are in the 1996 printed report, volume 11)

    Records for any particular town are usually found in two places in a file: Programs run by local housing agencies are listed first, by the number of the agency. Other programs are listed later, by county and zip code. They can be re-sorted as needed.

    The national data file is about 50 megabytes (240 characters per record times 192,313 records), sorted by project number. State files are smaller (same record length, but fewer records). File names include "hud4" to distinguish them from earlier files. Note that Certificates+Vouchers issued in one state and used in another ("portability") are included with the state that issued them, though they could be re-sorted to the state where they are used (see "tract" in the "Meaning of Codes" section).

    hud4.wk1 Empty spreadsheet file, ready to fill: labels and widths of variables are already defined
    hud4.dbf Empty data base file, ready to fill: names and widths of variables are already defined
    readme4.txt Documentation


    This Web site sketches a picture of nearly five million subsidized households across the United States. It includes: (1) Totals; (2) Indian Housing; (3) Public Housing; (4) Section 8 Certificates and Vouchers; (5) Section 8 Moderate Rehabilitation; (6) Section 8 New and Substantial Rehabilitation; (7) Section 236; (8) Other HUD subsidies; and (9) Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC). Each line of data is identified by these key numbers, 1-9, in the second position of each data record.

    1997 Data are available for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. To view or download data for a particular State, please select from either the map (state abbreviation) or the appropriate letter below.

    US U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map

     

     

    United States Summary Data are also available for viewing or downloading

     

    Project, Agency, and State Summaries:

     

     

    Download files for all areas at once

     

    Project, Agency, and State Summaries:
    Census Tract Summaries (Neighborhoods):

     

     

    Download files to help load data into a spreadsheet or database

     

    When you view a file, you can locate any name or number by the Find command in your browser. The view shows mnemonics every 22 lines to help label the data, but you also need to read the Detailed Explanation of the Variables. The downloadable files are comma- and quote-delimited and do not have the mnemonic lines.


    Documentation

    More details about the data can be obtained by selecting from the following topics:

    The files use June 1997 through July 1997 data on the types of households in subsidized housing programs. The Census Tract Summary (Neighborhood) files show census tract data as of 1990. This is a working document and will be corrected as new information is received. We have tried to minimize errors, but the data come from so many different sources that errors undoubtedly remain. The material was compiled by Paul Burke 202-708-1060 x5888, who will appreciate comments and corrections.


    Highlights

    The database is valuable source of information about HUD subsidies. Some highlights of the data are:

    • The report covers nearly five million subsidized housing units, with 11 million people. Data on the occupants are missing on 20% of these units. Data on location are missing on 14% of units.
    • A quarter of households are wage earners and a fifth are welfare recipients. The average income of subsidized households is $9,200 per year, and 95% have incomes below $20,000. Most projects have a moderate income mix.
    • A third of households are elderly. Over half are minorities. Just under half include a single adult with children.
    • Subsidized households have been in their subsidy program for 6 years on average, and recent arrivals averaged nearly two years on the waiting list.
    • The average subsidized unit is in a neighborhood where one-eighth of the neighborhood are subsidized, one quarter are poor, and half are minority.
    • Six-sevenths of people in the United States have one or more subsidized housing units in their neighborhood.
    • Most projects and housing agencies are small, but most subsidized units are in the large projects and agencies.

    Differences from the 1996 File

    • More recent tenant data (9 months newer for some programs, 21 months newer for others)
    • More addresses and geographic codes
    • Three new items; averages of: HUD spending per unit, household income as percent of local median, number of months since tenant data were collected (three others were omitted to make room: % under $10,000 income, % age 25-44, % age 45-61). One changed item: length of stay is now in months, not years.
    • Households which have used portability to move, are now counted under the agency that pays their subsidy, not the place they moved to
    • More recent counts of available units in Public & Indian Housing, Certificates, Vouchers, and Moderate Rehabilitation
    • Fewer totals of housing agencies that have multiple numeric codes, and no subtotals of such agencies (see page 6)
    • More detailed weighting for missing data: in each project as well as each agency

    1997 Picture of Subsidized Households Quick Facts

    MAJOR U.S. HOUSING SUBSIDIES:

    Sec. 8 Vouchers + Certificates Public Housing Sec. 8 New + Rehab. Sec. 236 Note, most Sec. 236 units (67%) use Sec. 8 Loan Management as well as Sec. 236 subsidy
      13,755 15,177 4,224 Number of Projects
    3,973 2,859 1,403 902 Subsidized People (thousands)
    1,433 1,322 895 448 Subsidized Units (thousands)
    -- 90 -- -- % Occupied
    204 192 190 255 Average Rent/Month, Incl. Utilities
             
    9,100 8,900 8,900 10,000 Average Household Income/Yr
    19 21 11 15 % Under $5,000
    4 5 3 8 % Over $20,000
    28 24 13 36 % w/Wages Main Source Income
    25 18 9 14 % w/Welfare Main Source
    20 37 20 21 Neighborhood Poverty Rate
             
    16 32 60 34 % Age 62 or More, Head or Spouse
    34 48 74 43 % Age 62 or More or Disability
    66 45 23 45 % With Children under 18
    57 39 20 37 % Single Parent
    2.8 2.4 1.6 2.1 Avg. People/Household
    35 26 9 19 % with 3 or More Bedrooms
             
    58 68 37 53 % Minority Total
    39 48 23 35 % Black
    15 17 11 13 % Hispanic
    39 59 34 40 Minority as % of Neighborhood
           
             
    13 11 11 16 % Moved in During Past Year
    27 11 -- -- Average Months on Waiting List
    Other Units: Sec. 8 Moderate Rehabilitation: 110,000, Indian Housing: 70,000
    Concentration: 41% of subsidized units are in tracts where under 10% of the tract's units are subsidized. 13% are in tracts with over half their units subsidized.


    LARGEST HOUSING AGENCIES:

    Units (000s) Average Income % Welfare % 62+ Months Wait  
    V+C Public V+C Public V+C Public V+C Public V+C Public  
    76 160 $11,000 13,000 29 -- 31 32 26 -- New York City
    15 57 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Puerto Rico
    15 40 9,200 -- 23 -- 16 -- 105 -- Chicago
    35 9 10,000 10,000 37 43 23 15 30 27 Los Angeles City
    9 22 8,400 8,000 40 40 16 24 50 35 Philadelphia
    10 18 7,500 7,700 37 28 11 33 54 18 Baltimore City
    11 11 7,800 7,100 20 19 34 44 82 19 Miami/Dade
    20 0 10,500 . 20 . 20 . 25 . New York State
    7 14 8,400 6,500 28 32 5 32 13 -- Atlanta
    7 12 7,700 6,500 42 32 8 27 39 20 Cleveland
    6 13 11,000 -- 34 -- 10 -- 64 -- Boston
    6 13 7,000 6,200 17 38 17 12 42 16 New Orleans
    8 8 7,100 6,500 27 24 8 33 15 8 San Antonio
    13 3 11,000 -- 38 -- 26 -- 21 -- Los Angeles County
    4 12 -- 8,300 -- 31 -- 30 -- 20 Washington, DC
    V+C = vouchers+certs
      . = no such units
    -- = unknown

    Quick Facts on the American Housing Survey



    This Web site sketches a picture of nearly five million subsidized households across the United States. It includes: (1) Totals; (2) Indian Housing; (3) Public Housing; (4) Section 8 Certificates and Vouchers; (5) Section 8 Moderate Rehabilitation; (6) Section 8 New and Substantial Rehabilitation; (7) Section 236; (8) Other HUD subsidies; and (9) Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC). Each line of data is identified by these key numbers, 1-9, in the second position of each data record.

    1996 Data are available for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. To view or download data for a particular State, please select from either the map (state abbreviation) or the appropriate letter below.

    US U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map U.S. Map

     

     

    United States Summary Data are also available for viewing or downloading

     

    Project, Agency, and State Summaries:

    Documentation

    More details about the data can be obtained by selecting from the following topics:

    The files use October 1995 through September 1996 data on the types of households in subsidized housing programs. The Census Tract Summary (Neighborhood) files show census tract data as of 1990 (the number of 1990 renters in these files was corrected 2/7/97). This is a working document and will be corrected as new information is received. We have tried to minimize errors, but the data come from so many different sources that errors undoubtedly remain. The material was compiled by Paul Burke 202-708-1060 x5888, who will appreciate comments and corrections.

    Highlights

    The database is valuable source of information about HUD subsidies. Some highlights of the data are:

    • The report covers nearly five million subsidized housing units, with 11 million people. Data on the occupants are missing on 27% of these units. Data on location are missing on 19% of units.
    • A quarter of households are wage earners and a fifth are welfare recipients. The average income of subsidized households is $8,800 per year, and 71% have incomes below $10,000. Most projects have a moderate income mix.
    • A third of households are elderly. Over half are minorities. Just under half include a single adult with children.
    • Subsidized households have been in their subsidy program for 6 years on average, and recent arrivals averaged one and a half years on the waiting list.
    • The average subsidized unit is in a neighborhood where one-eighth of the neighborhood are subsidized, one quarter are poor, and half are minority.
    • Four-fifths of people in the United States have one or more subsidized housing units in their neighborhood.
    • Most projects and housing agencies are small, but most subsidized units are in the large projects and agencies.


    Family Data on Public and Indian Housing

    This disk shows about 19,000 summary records on public and Indian housing projects and their tenants. It does not show data on individual tenants, to protect privacy. The records are organized by state, and there is also a 1/30th sample. Data on individual families were sent by local housing agencies to the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and were summarized by HUD. There are summaries for: each housing project, (usually a building or group of buildings) each housing agency (city, county, tribe, etc., with 1 or more projects) agencies supervised by each HUD field office and region agencies of various sizes all agencies in the US (including Guam, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands).

    Each summary record shows number of housing units, average tenant income, percent minority, elderly, female headed, etc. The summaries are not private or copyrighted and may be copied.

    Download the Executable File
    Order Here


    A Picture of Subsidized Households in the 1970s




    Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (Specialized Data)
    More detailed addresses are also available from HUD USER: Subsidized Housing Projects' Geographic Codes, Form HUD-951


    Send Comments to helpdesk@huduser.gov with the subject line Picture Datasets.