A Picture of Subsidized Households Detailed Explanation of the Variables


The file is delimited ASCII, with double quotes around text fields (i.e., the fields "name" and "code"), and commas separating all fields, so they can be read directly by most programs. At the same time, the file is in fixed format, so it can be read by programs that need fixed formats. We have kept the record length under 240 characters (which is a limit in Lotus) since we expect some users will use Lotus.

Layout of Report and Computer File

Name in This Report Computer File

General Notes: 99 = 99% or more; blank or -1 = low reporting or unknown
Name Start Width
Program pgm 1 2 Summary level is in the first column:
  1. U.S. totals
  2. Total of all housing agencies of a particular size. Actual size is shown in name and at end of record. Only covers programs run by housing agencies*. Agency is classified based on total units in all programs.
  3. State total, also used for DC and outlying areas
  4. Housing agency total*
  5. Summary record for part of an agency: for a few agencies that administer several codes.*

    Examples include: Maryland state housing agency administers MD 901 and MD 902. Navajo Indian housing agency administers AZ 012, NM 014 and UT 005. Puerto Rico state housing agency administers RQ 001, RQ 002, RQ 003, RQ 004, RQ 005, and RQ 90 1.

    In these agencies with multiple codes we show totals separately (summary level 5), and also a grand total under one code (summary level 4). In simpler agencies we just show the grand total (summary level 4).

  6. Project record (not for Certificates+Vouchers, Moderate Rehabilitation) A 'project' is a building or group of buildings funded at about the same time.
  7. Census tract summary

    A Census tract is an area of about 1,500 homes, chosen by local communities in cooperation with the Census Bureau, as an area that is somewhat homogeneous socioeconomically. Maps were published by the 1990 Census, showing tract boundaries

Programs are in the second column. Key values differ between file and report:

File Report

1 A Total for all programs

2 B Indian Housing as of 9/96
3 P Public Housing

Section 8:

4 C Section 8 Certificates+Vouchers
5 K Section 8 Moderate Rehabilitation
6 S Section 8 New Construction or Substantial
Rehabilitation (including 202 financing)


Federal Housing Administration (FHA):

7 T Section 236 project
8 F Other FHA projects with subsidy (including
Sec. 8 Loan Management, Rental Assistance
Program (RAP), Rent Supplement, Property
Disposition, etc)

9 L Low Income Housing Tax Credit

* Note that programs 6–9, (S–L) are not included in housing agency summaries, since they are independently managed.

Address & City name 5 32 Name of the project, agency, state, or size class.

For summary level 5, part of an agency this item gives a cross-reference to another record where one can find the total of the agency. For example the level 5 record for MD 902 shows "IN MD901" since both are run by the Maryland state housing agency and the total data are given in the level 4 record for MD 901. The total and the part may be identical, when two codes have been assigned to the agency, but only one is in use.

For summary level 6, projects: name is in the first 12 characters of this item, a brief address is in the second 12 characters and city is in the last 8.

For summary level 7 in program 4 (C), Census tracts in Certificates+Vouchers this item shows: county and tract, in the format: "Cert+Vch:county123 1234.67tract"

For summary level 7 in program 1 (A), Census tract summaries across all programs, this item shows: population, renter households, and percent in various programs, in the format: "12345pop 2345ren 12P 12C 12H 12L". The abbreviations are as ab ove, except H is a total of programs 6, 7 and 8 (S, T and F).

Code code 40 11 Project code or number: This always starts with a 2–letter state abbreviation (RQ for Puerto Rico, as used in most HUD project numbers).

In summary levels 1–3, this code has a very brief label, like AL for Alabama. For other summary levels, the meaning varies by program:

In program 1 (A: i.e., for tract summaries that include all programs present in the tract), this code shows: state, tilde (~), HUD units as % of housing units in the tract in 1990, and number of housing units in the tract in 1990, like "AL~12% 1234 "

In programs 2–5 (B, P, C, K) this code shows: state abbreviation, then blank and agency#, then blank and project# if any, like: "AK 001 001" In program 2 or B, an M after the project# (in the 11th character) means Mutual Ownership.

In program 6 or S this code shows: state, 2–digit HUD office, and project number, like "AK01R123456"

In programs 7–8, (T, F) this code shows: state, underline, 3–digit HUD office and project number, like "AK_11144666" For this group, if state was unknown, we generated it from the HUD field office code. There may be some errors where offices cross state l ines.

In program 9 or L this code shows: state, curly bracket ({), then state-defined project ID, if any, like "AK{87–123"

Units Available units 53 7 Number of units: Units under contract and available for occupancy.

This count is not as recent as the tenant data: it is as of 9/30/95, except in Tax Credits it is 12/94.

If an agency overall has more Certificates+Vouchers than it reports on, we assume each tract has extra Certificates+Vouchers in the same proportion (but we assume no more than twice as many in a tract as the number reported).

The number of units was missing and had to be estimated for a few projects. In Tax Credits, when we show 35 units we had no data (and used 35 since it is the national average); projects which truly had 35 or 36 units are shown as 36. In Ofc. of Housing (programs 6–8 or S–F), 66 units mean we had no data (and used 66, the national average); 67 means actually 66 or 67. In Public & Indian Housing, zero units are shown for 95 projects. It is believed most are not active project numbers.

%Occupied occ 61 2 Occupied units as % of available. This is valid in program 3 (P: Public Housing).

Elsewhere no data are actually available, and numbers are assumed, purely for calculating reporting rates: In program 6 (S) occupancy rates are stipulated at 98%, and in programs 7–8 (T, F) at 96% (Wallace 1993, page 2–27, though his figures are based on rent revenue, and occupancy is less). In other programs we stipulate 99%, since almost all units are assumed occupied.

%Reported rep 64 2 Reported units, as % of occupied
%<1Yr mover 67 2 % in program less than a year. If it is 100% or 0%, the project has reported only admissions, or no admissions, either of which is usually a data quality problem
Fam.Size size 70 3 Average size of household, with decimal point & decimal place (for example 2.5). To find the number of people served by the agency, multiply this size by units available and % occupied.
Av.Rent rent 74 3 Average gross household rent per month.

This includes rent the household pays to the agency or landlord, and an estimate of any separately metered utilities they pay (and also ownership costs in Indian ownership programs).

Based on households with rent in the range $1–$2,498; other rents are considered errors.

This is item 14 on form HUD–50058 (highest of: 10% of gross income, 30% of adjusted income, or welfare rent), except in vouchers, where it is item 22k (total family contribution), and Indian Mutual, where it is item 17h (family cost).

Av.Income incom 78 3 Average total household income. This is shown in thousands of dollars per year, with decimal point.

This is basically total income before adjustments, but it does exclude some types of income which HUD regulations do not count at all, such as earnings of minors, and scholarships.

Averages below $1,000 are shown as .00–.99 thousand dollars. Averages below $10,000 are shown as 1.0–9.9 thousand dollars. Higher averages are shown as 10. to 99. thousand dollars. (All software that we are familiar with can handle this floating decimal p oint; normally declare the maximum width: 3 and maximum decimal positions: 2.)

Based on households with income in the range $1–99000.

%<$5000 i5 82 2 % Below $5,000 (part of line below)
%<10000 i10 85 2 % Below $10,000
%$20000+ i20 88 2 % $20,000 or more (you can get the category $10–19,999 by subtraction)
%Wages wage 91 2 % Majority of household's income comes from wages and/or business
%Welf welf 94 2 % Majority of household's income comes from welfare (AFDC or General Assistance, not Supplemental Security Income).

Note that remaining households have majority of income from another source, such as pensions, Social Security, SSI, unemployment benefits or child support, or have a mixture, with no type giving a majority of income

Incm.Mix mix 97 2 Income mix as percent of average income. The larger the number, the more income mix.

This is the coefficient of variation, which is the standard deviation of income, as a percent of the average income. The standard deviation measures how far each household's income is from the average income. Incomes that are far above or be low average have large effects, since the differences are squared before being averaged.

%Age<25 a24 100 2 % Under age 25: age of head or spouse, whichever is older
%Age25–44 a44 103 2 % Age 25–44
%Age45–61 a61 106 2 % Age 45–61
%Age62+ a62 109 2 % Age 62+
%Age85+ a85 112 2 % Age 85+ (part of line above)
%Disab<62 d61 115 2 % With disability, as % of households below age 62 (includes households where either head or spouse has handicap or disability)
%Disab62+ d62 118 2 % With disability, as % of households age 62 or more
%Minority min 121 2 % Minority
%Black blac 124 2 % Black, not Hispanic
%Hispanic hisp 127 2 % Hispanic (of any race)
%Nat.Amer indn 130 2 % Native American
%Asin-Pac asia 133 2 % Asian or Pacific Islander
Dif PR-HA dif 136 2 Difference between project & agency in % Minority: measures extent to which subsidized minorities live in different places from subsidized whites. Scale is 0–50. The larger the number, the more separately whites & minorities live.

For Public Housing projects, this is the difference between: % minority for the project, and overall % minority for Public Housing at the agency. Difference is shown for each project (in absolute value). Average of these differences i s shown for each agency.

For Certificates+Vouchers (which do not have projects), difference is based on Census tracts with more than 10 households reported: average difference between: % minority among Certificates+Vouchers in the tract, and overall % minority among Certif icates+Vouchers at the agency.

Summaries of this item exclude agencies that are under 5% or over 95% minority, and agencies with only one project or tract, since there cannot be much difference there.

%0Bedroom bed0 139 2 % 0 Bedrooms
%1Bedroom bed1 142 2 % 1 Bedroom
%2Bedroom bed2 145 2 % 2 Bedrooms
%3+Bedrms bed3 148 2 % 3 Bedrooms or more
%2Sp+Chil sp2 151 2 % Both spouses: married couple with 1 or more children under 18
%1Sp+Chil sp1 154 2 % Spouse not present; but 1 or more children under 18 are present
%Female fem 157 2 % Female head. This is bigger than single parents, since many elderly women are female heads, but have no children present.
%Br>Peopl bedx 160 2 % Overhoused, with more bedrooms than people
%w/Assets as 163 2 % With assets over $5,000. The denominator excludes households with assets over $200,000 (errors), but includes zeros, some of which may be errors.
Av.Assets asav 166 2 Average assets, in thousands of dollars, among households with assets $5,000–$200,000
%w/Utilty ut 169 2 % With valid utility allowance ($1–$1,000 are considered valid) This is an estimate of the utilities the household needs to pay to the utility company. It is zero if all utilities are included in rent.
Av.Utilty utav 172 3 Average utility allowance, among households with it, in dollars per month
Yrs.Stay stay 176 2 Average years since moved in. Excludes programs 4–5 (C, K), since move-in dates before 1993 are not known
Mos.Wait wait 179 2 Average months on waiting list, among admissions. Excludes programs 6–9 (S, T, F, L), which do not report waiting list dates
Latitude lat 182 6.3 Average latitude. Data file includes decimal point and 3 decimal places
Longitude long 189 8.3 Average longitude. Data file includes decimal point and 3 decimal places.

Negative means West longitude, which covers most of the United States. Zero is in Britain; negative numbers go to -180 in the Aleutians; positive numbers go to +180, also in the Aleutians.

Distances in miles between points a and b can be calculated (where f=.0174532925 and converts from degrees to radians):

IF abs(longa–longb) < .001 THEN
distance = abs(lata–latb) * 69.055
distance = 3956.56 * arcos{ [sin(lata*f) * sin(latb*f)]
+ [cos(lata*f) * cos(latb*f) * cos(abs(longa–longb)*f)] }
Zip zip 198 5 Zip code, assigned by the postal service, unique within United States. 88888 means more than one Zip code applies
County cnty 204 3 County: 3–digit code, unique within state. 888 means more than one county applies
Tract tract 208 7.2 Census tract surrounding the project, code unique within county, including decimal point and 2 decimal places. 8888.00 means more than one tract applies
T%Poverty tpov 216 2 Tract % Poor: Poor as % of population, in Census tract that surrounds project

This, like other items, is averaged for all projects, weighted by number of units in each project

T%Minrty tmin 219 2 Tract % Minority: Minorities as % of population, in Census tract that surrounds project.
T%OwnSFD tow1 222 2 Tract Single Family Owners: Households that are owner-occupants of single family detached homes, as % of households in Census tract that surrounds project. This counts owner-occupants in buildings with 1 unit, not townhouses, condominiums, or mobile h omes
MSA msa 225 4 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA or PMSA). Code is unique within the United States.

0 means not in any metropolitan area (blank or -1 means status unknown)

8888 means more than one metro area applies.

MSA and PMSA (Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area) codes form one consistent series; the distinction is minor: PMSAs are pieces of even larger "Consolidated" areas (CMSAs), while MSAs are free-standing.

These are statistical areas established by the Office of Management and Budget. HUD has subdivided some for setting Fair Market Rents and Income Limits, and HUD's areas are not reflected here.

Place place 230 4 Code for the city, town, or Census-defined place (such as a well-known locality that is not legally incorporated). Unique within state. 8888 means that more than one code applies.
Cong.Dist cd 235 2 Congressional District, for the Congress elected in 1994. 88 means more than one district applies. Unique within state.
HA.Size cl 238 1 Size class of housing agency.

0 not in any agency
1 1–99 units in agency
2 100–299 units in agency
3 300–499 units in agency
4 500–999 units in agency
5 1,000–2,999 units in agency
6 3,000–4,999 units in agency
7 5,000–9,999 units in agency
8 10,000–29,999 units in agency
9 30,000 or more units in agency

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