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Wind-Borne Debris: Impact Resistance of Residential Glazing

Report Acceptance Date: 
January 2002 (32 pages)
Posted Date:   
January 1, 2002

Since the disaster caused by Hurricane Andrew in 1992, protection of glazing (i.e., windows and doors on the exterior of homes and other buildings) from wind-borne debris damage has received much attention. The resulting impact on product standards and building regulations has affected the balance of affordability and performance of new homes in some hurricane-prone regions of the United States with uncertain costs and benefits.

The objective of this research was to provide needed data on the fragility (i.e., impact magnitude vs. glass breakage probability) of typical residential glass using field-observed and standardized missile types representing wind-borne debris. In this experimental study, representative sources of debris hazards, such as pieces of roof shingles and nominal 2 in. by 4 in. dimension lumber were used to impact "standard" (i.e., non-impact resistant) glass, namely annealed glass. The test matrix included both 3/32-in. and 5/32-in. glass thickness tested at 1:1 and 2:1 aspect ratios (2 ft x 2 ft and 2 ft x 4 ft panels). Impact speed was varied as necessary to characterize fragility (i.e., glass breakage probability vs. impact magnitude). In addition, the response of annealed glass to multiple impacts was investigated. Representations of impact magnitude using kinetic energy and momentum are also compared with respect to the ability to predict glass behavior or fragility.

From this work, it is anticipated that wind-borne debris hazards and standardized performance criteria for wind-borne debris protection of glazing in residential buildings will be improved or at least better understood. In particular, this information is intended to improve hazard-modeling assumptions used to assess the risk of glass breakage in hurricane-prone environments of the United States. Ultimately, such research should lead to optimized solutions for wind-borne protection of window and door glazing in homes and other buildings.