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Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs

Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs


HUD's Office of Policy Development and Research managed a congressionally mandated study of the housing needs of American Indians, Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians. The study used several sources of information, including collecting new data from households and stakeholders. For copies of the survey instruments, please see the list of documents under “data collection tools.” In addition to the primary data collection, the study also includes an in-depth analysis of Census data and administrative data from HUD and other federal agencies.

The goal of the study is to provide clear, credible, and consistent information to assess the housing conditions in American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian communities. The study is intended to inform policy and allow HUD to serve tribes more effectively.

If you'd like to receive updates about the study or participate with HUD and other interested parties in discussions on related issues, please sign up for our eList.

A briefing on the findings of the Assessment of American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs is available here.

Current Status

The study is completed. Published reports include:

In July 2016, the draft of the report Housing Needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives in Tribal areas was provided to tribes for comment. A document containing a summary of the comments and HUD’s responses is available here.

Hawaii Study Update

A comprehensive report on Native Hawaiian housing needs (released in June 2017) is available here.

Short Articles about the Study

HUD published several articles about the Native American Housing Needs Assessment in the online magazine PD&R Edge, including the following:

Tribal Leader Consultations

Please visit our consultation page for the full minutes and summary report on the tribal leader consultations.

Background Information

Responses to Federal Register Notice 5480-N-73

  1. Ho-Chunk Nation comments (6/30/11)
    1. HUD response to Ho-Chunk Nation
  2. Cook Inlet Housing Authority comments (7/5/11)
    1. HUD response to Cook Inlet Housing Authority
  3. Association of Alaska Housing Authority comments (7/5/11)
    1. HUD response to the Association of Alaska Housing Authority
  4. Cook Inlet Housing Authority follow-up to HUD comments (8/22/11)
    1. HUD response to follow-up comments from Cook Inlet Housing Authority

Household Survey of Native Hawaiians

Data Collection Tools

If you have further questions about the study or any of the content described on this page, please contact Elizabeth Rudd in HUD's Office of Policy Development and Research.
Phone: 202-402-7607

Native American eList

Sign up here to stay informed about this study.

Public Use Files Description

The Native American Housing Needs Assessment produced three public use data files:

  • American Indian Alaska Native (AIAN) Household Survey Public Use File
  • Tribally Designated Housing Entity (TDHE) Survey Public Use File
  • Hawaiian Homes Commission Act (HHCA) Beneficiary Survey Public Use File

Data files in SAS format and documentation, including codebooks and tables, are available for these three public use files.

The public use data files were anonymized by the Urban Institute and do not contain names, tribal affiliations, or other personally identifying information. The data are to be made available to “researchers who are interested in housing needs.” To request access to a public use file for research purposes, please contact HUD at Information about the data license process is available at

Previous Assessments of Native American Housing Needs

HUD assessed Native American Housing Needs in the mid-1990s, and in 1996 HUD published two reports that laid the foundations for the larger and more comprehensive study published in 2017. The earlier reports are available on HUD User, along with data files and data documentation.

HUD’s 1996 study built on the work of the National Commission on American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Housing, which was established by public law 101-235 (103 Stat 2052), the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Reform Act, dated December 15, 1989. The commission submitted its final report to Congress and to HUD in August 1992 and a supplemental report in 1993, and it then ceased operations on August 31, 1993.

The 2023 PD&R Edge article titled Housing Research with Tribes by Todd Richardson is an overview of PD&R’s contributions to HUD’s work with tribes. It was published as part of the PD&R at 50 series and provides links to earlier work, including the Housing Assistance Council’s history of housing programs for Native Americans from 1937 to 1988.