Skip to main content

SECTION V—Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities Initiative: Government Reports and HUD Documents


Posted Date: March 31, 2005

Publication Icon
  1. Federal Publications

    The State of the Cities U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) (June, 1997)
    Presents findings of the status of cities, which includes discussion of Round II EZs and EZ/EC Initiative, generally as a strategy to revitalize inner-city communities.

    The Community and Individual Investment Corporation: A Guide to a New Economic Partnership between Citizens, Government, Communities and the Private Sector HUD, Office of Community Planning and Development (September, 1996)
    Provides guidance on how to enhance and build partnerships for Community and Individual Investment Corporations, citing EZ/ECs as potential locations

    State Enterprise Zone Update: 1997 HUD, Office of Community Planning and Development (March, 1997)
    Provides a profile of state enterprise zones nationwide.

    What Works in Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities, Vol. I Department of Housing and Urban Development and Department of Agriculture (1997)
    Presents examples of successful programs throughout EZ/ECs that categorized under the four principles of the program.

    What Works in Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities, Vol. II Department of Housing and Urban Development and Department of Agriculture (1998)
    Presents examples of successful programs throughout EZ/ECs that categorized under the four principles of the program.

    What Works in Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities, Vol. III Department of Housing and Urban Development and Department of Agriculture (1999)
    Presents examples of successful programs throughout EZ/ECs that categorized under the four principles of the program.

    Renewing Government: 1996 Consolidated Annual Report for HUD’s Community Development Programs HUD, Office of Community Planning and Development (1996)
    Consolidated planning for all of HUD coincides and enhances the community planning process and results-oriented approach employed by the EZ/EC Initiative.

    Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Community Progress Report HUD, Office of Community Planning and Development (November, 1995)
    Cites examples of EZ/EC progress toward implementation of strategic plans.

    The President’s Community Empowerment Board: Building Communities Together Community Empowerment Board (1998)
    Provides information on the overall accomplishments of the EZ/EC Initiative.

    Urban Empowerment Zones & Enterprise Communities Community Empowerment Board and HUD
    Describes the EZ/EC Initiative including legislative background, business incentives, implementation and federal partnerships.

    BusinessLINC: Business-to-Business Relationships that Increase the Economic Competitiveness of Firms Department of Treasury,
    Small Business Administration (December, 1998)
    Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities are mentioned as examples of private-public sector partnerships.

    Community Development: The Federal Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community Program General Accounting Office
    GAO/RCED-98-27 Testimony before the Subcomittee on Oversight, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives October 28, 1997 - Testimony
    Community representation within governance structures and enhanced communication among stakeholders aided program implementation. Preexisting relationships among EZ stakeholders and pressure for quick results hindered program implementation.

    Government Accounting Office, Status of Urban Empowerment Zones, Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives, December, 1996 62 pp. (GAO/RCED-97-21)

    Community Development: Status of Urban Empowerment Zones General Accounting Office, GAO/RCED-97-21 (December, 1996)
    Community representation on governance boards, technical assistance from HUD contractors, support from city’s mayor, White House and cabinet-level officials facilitated program implementation. EZ/EC Initiative brought community stakeholders together.
    Additional layer of bureaucracy created by state government involvement, pressure for quick results, lack of federal funding were included as factors constraining implementation.

    Community Development: Progress on Economic Development Activities Varies Among Empowerment Zones General Accounting Office, GAO/RCED-99-29 (November, 1998)
    Four of the six EZs surveyed had initiated or completed their economic development activity. Progress was greater in EZs where stakeholders had experience in implementation and could agree on roles and responsibilities. Disagreement among stakeholders delayed activities.

    Community Development: Information on the Use if Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community Tax Incentives General Accounting Office, GAO/RCED-98-203 (June, 1998)
    Tax-exempt bonds were issued 8 times since the bonds became available to EZ/ECs. Data from IRS on the utilization of expensing and wage credits was not reliable.

    Audit Report: Review of Empowerment Zone, Enterprise Community, and Economic Development Initiative Grant Selection Processes Office of Inspector General, HUD, 95-HQ-154-0002 (August 31, 1995)
    IG concluded that original process designed for making EZ/EC designations was not fully followed and the nature of the alternative procedures used was not described in writing. 14 lower-rated EC designates were undocumented.

    Empowerment Zone/ Enterprise Community Progress Report: Start-6/30/96 HUD (November, 1995)
    Reports the progress of 72 EZ/ECs

    Empowerment Zone/ Enterprise Community Progress Report: 7/1/96-6/30/97 HUD (March, 1997)
    Reports the progress of 72 EZ/ECs

  2. Implementation Studies

    Early Implementation Study, conducted by the Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, State University of New York, Albany, New York, for the Office of Community Planning and Development, HUD. The three published reports are:

    Empowerment Zone Initiative: Building a Community Plan for Strategic Change Findings from the First Round of Assessment (1997)

    Citizen participation during the development of the city’s strategic plan was significantly and substantively greater than what has taken place in other federal urban initiatives (18 EZ/ECs reviewed). Most 18 EZ/ECs reviewed are incorporating job training and One-Stop Capital Shop models. Citizens obtained moderate to substantial role in governance of EZ/EC. Areas designated as EZ/ECs were found to be significantly more distressed than other areas of cities eligible for designation. Populations in EZ/ECs had far lower levels of educational attainment than populations in other areas.

    New Paths to Opportunity: Special Report on Job Training and Placement Activities in Selected Empowerment Zone/ Enterprise Community Sites (July, 1997)

    Some cities described their job training and placement services under EZ/EC as extending beyond, or filing gaps in existing services (18 EZ/ECs). 16 of 18 sites include industry-specific training. Lack of coordination structure among providers and limited initiative capacity of new EZ/EC-related entitled were two barriers. Skill-level of local workforce was next cited barrier

    Investing in a New Future: Special Report on Community Development Financing in Selected Empowerment Zones/ Enterprise Community Sites (August, 1997)

    One- Stop Capital Shop used in capital access for businesses and residential finance. Several cities emphasized need for outreach to increase capacity for residents to apply for, obtain and effectively use capital. Loan activity is more prevalent in MSAs than EZ/EC sites. Barriers cited to implementation include capacity of community-based organizations and businesses, city review process for contracts and projects, neighborhood conditions, and leadership trouble/turnover.

    Research by Marilyn Gittell, et al., Howard Samuels State Management and Policy Center, the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York:

    The Urban Empowerment Zones: Community Organizations and Community Capacity Building (May, 1996) 46 pp.

    Empowerment Zone Implementation: Community Participation and Community Capacity (January, 1998) 81 pp.
    Strong community participation in writing strategic plans. Generally, narrow involvement of neighborhood groups, new immigrant groups, religious institutions, social organizations, advocacy groups and unions.

    Other published implementation related research includes:

    National EZ Action Research Project, Making Chicago’s EZ work: Looking Back, Planning Ahead: A report on
    Chicago’s 1995-1997 Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Community Coordinating Council
    , Egan Urban
    Center, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois April, 1998 41 pp.

    Neighborhood Works: EZ/ECs Two-Year Anniversary Center for Neighborhood Technology (Jan/Feb 1997) Volume 20 Number 1
    This edition highlights case studies in various EZ/ECs in regards to various topics which include governance, business investment, and the environment.

    Breaking Down the Barriers: Prospects and Policies for Linking Jobs and Residents in the Chicago Empowerment Zone Woodstock Institute: Chicago, Illinois (November, 1996)
    Neighborhood economic development can bring benefits such as physical improvements and increased confidence in the viability of a community. The EZ model places a much higher priority on spurring development that will bring jobs and other benefits to EZ residents as well as encouraging physical investment. Lack of data regarding those who currently hold jobs in EZs. Residents of the Chicago EZ face many systemic barriers of inadequate skills and skills mismatches, lack of access to social-employment networks, and racial discrimination. 10% of jobs in EZ are held by EZ residents.

    EZ Exchange University of Illinois at Chicago: Great Cities Institute Published quarterly
    Each issue compares various components of the Empowerment Zones from financing tools, to governance to background information.

  3. Technical Assistance Related Publications

    Activities for Strategic Change: An Overview of Public and Private Investment Activities in the Six Urban Empowerment Zones
    Price Waterhouse, LLP (March, 1997)
    EZ/ECs attract leveraged capital to the community. Increased demand for goods and services by local business expansions produces income for zone residents and entrepreneurs.

    Empowerment Zone Initiative: Activities for Strategic Change in Detroit Price Waterhouse, LLP (August, 1996)
    Economic strategy in Detroit EZ may lead to stronger residential market and strengthen downtown presence of second tier service industries and professional services. Detroit EZ is facilitating Detroit’s revitalization and preservation of manufacturing base by creating 9000 jobs, stimulating $1.8 billion in investment, 24 businesses expansions, and $1.1 billion lending commitment from financial institutions.

    Urban Empowerment Zones: Highlights from the First 18 Months Price Waterhouse, LLP (September, 1996)
    Showcases stories describing economic development successes in Round I EZs and expenditure of SSBG monies to stimulate private investment.

    Evaluation of the Performance Measurement System for Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities Abt Associates, Inc
    (March 31, 1999)
    Report assesses the PERMS and accumulation of data by communities for reporting purposes.

Previous Contents Next

Publication Categories: Publications    


All Publications
Search for Publications
Search for Ongoing Research